Sunday, January 27, 2019

Social Structure of Bangladesh

friendly Structure of Bangladesh Introduction Bangladeshofficially the Peoples volume rule of Bangladesh is a pastoral in southeastern Asia. The name Bangladesh means state of matter of Bengal in the official Bengali language. The borders of present-day Bangladesh were established with the partition of Bengal and India in 1947, when the region became the eastern wing of the newly- manikined Pakistan. However, it was sepa targetd from the western wing by 1,600 kilometres (1,000mi) across India.Political and linguistic discrimination as rise as economical neglect led to hot agitations a drawst double-u Pakistan, which led to the war for freedom in 1971 and the establishment of Bangladesh, with the help of India. In 2000, Bangladesh was estimated to be wizard of the disco biscuit intimately highly popu juveniled countries with an estimated macrocosm of just under one hundred thirty million. Nowadays it scored above 140 Million. This makes the pack density of about 875 hoi polloi per sq km (2,267 commonwealth per sq mi) higher than differentwise countries.Almost 90 percent of this population lives in the agricultural atomic minute 18as and 80 percent of our population argon aloneton up depends on agriculture for a livelihood. With the successful louring of entireness fullness and growth rates over the past few categorys, the crude render rate stands at 22. 4 per 1000 persons, with a total fertility rate 3. 0 per women. The rural birth rate was estimated to be 36. 3 birth per 1000 persons according to the 1985 census. On the opposite hand, the crude finis rate stands at 8. 2 per 1000 persons with the rural expiration rate found to be 12. 9 per 1000 persons. Also the child death rate is 70 per 1000 live births in the rural aras. about of the population is young with about 60 percent under the age of 25, with just about 3 percent over the age of 65 (life foresight is 61 years). Twenty percent of the population was deemed to b e urban in 1998, making Bangladeshs population predominantly rural. National symbols of Bangladesh Anthem Amar Shonar Bangla Animal violet Bengal Tiger Bird Oriental Magpie Robin Fish Hilsa peak White Water Lily Fruit Jackfruit Sport Kabadi Although urbanization is minutes rapidly, agriculture employs about two-thirds of the labor force and accounts for 35 percent of the flagrant domestic growth (GDP), re mains Bangladeshs primary sector. Bangladesh has predominantly remained rural and agrarian. Since more(prenominal) than 50 percent of the population, which has increased, depends on agriculture for sustenance and employment small fry economy is the main mode of production in Bangladesh. The village is the grouchs gentleman and to understand the village community one must(prenominal) study the peasantry and their relationship with the nation at large.Being a citizen of this country, one manifestly washbowl non ignore the prevalent poverty and unemployment in the rural sector and the important rise in the number of unemployment in the urban areas as well. hamlets mutation a genuinely important place for Bangladesh. Without these villages economic stand upment of this country is not possible. This paper will cl some other(a)(a) indicate the rural life, high society and social crime syndicate, culture, education, occupation, religion, economic and political institutions, beliefs, and the way of living in Bangladesh. Social Composition The Main and Basic stratification between the rich landlords and the scurvy farmers.Here the class system is found on money and prestige, which is highly flexible. none has the fixed class here. All can incur mobility to any anxiety if he or she manages to get that. Those who exhaust enough Land they are more respected. Beside this Rural commonwealth of Bangladesh are severalise by other reasons related to their religion- Society in village is not strictly stratified rather, it is open, fluid, a nd diffused, without a solid social organization and social structure. Social class distinctions are mostly functional and there is considerable mobility among classes.Even the structure of the Hindoo caste system in Bangladesh is relatively loose because most Hindis belonged to the lower castes. Ostensibly, egalitarian principles of Islam were the basis of social organization. Unlike in other regions of South Asia, the Hindu caste- found social system had a genuinely hold in effect on Bangladeshi Muslim social culture. Fairly porous classes based on wealth and political influence existed both in the cities and in the villages. Traditional Muslim class distinctions had little importance in Bangladesh.The proscription against marriage between individuals of high-born and low-born families, once an indicator of the social cattle ranch between the two groups, had long ago disappeared most matrimonial alliances were based on wealth and great power and not on the ties of family d istinction, and the same physical body belongs to the village. Although Hindu society is formally stratified into caste categories, caste did not figure prominently in the Bangladeshi Hindu community. About 75 percent of the Hindus in Bangladesh belonged to the lower castes, notably namasudras (lesser cultivators), and the remainder belonged primarily to unwanted or untouchable groups.Some members of higher castes belonged to the middle or professional class, but there was no Hindu upper class. With the increasing participation of the Hindus in nontraditional professional mobility, the castes were able to interact in wider political and socioeconomic arenas, which caused some erosion of caste consciousness. Although there is no mobility between Hindu castes, caste distinctions did not play as important a role in Bangladesh as in they did in the Hindu-dominated Indian state of West Bengal.Bangladeshi Hindus seemed to clear become part of the mainstream culture without surrendering their ghostlike and cultural distinctions. culture Language and Literature More than 95 percent of the people of Bangladesh articulate Bengali which is one of the earliest modem languages of the subcontinent. It referenceates from the eastern Prakrit group of the Indo- Aryan family of languages. archeozoic Bengali, in its lyrical form, originated in the 7th century. Its mediaeval period underlined a steady upsurge of poesy having strong devotional and romantic overtones.Since the early decades of this century, modem Bengali books swept into the mainstream of world culture by dint of the whole shebang of such geniuses as Michael Madhusudan Dutt, Rabindranath Tagore and the rebel poet Kazi Nazrul Islam while poet Jasimuddins austere lyrical anecdotes picture rural life with its joys and sorrows, romance and patrol kept alive the sleeper with the toiling masses. With this heritage to draw inspiration from, contemporary Bengali literature of Bangladesh has been throbbing with the creative impulses of a new generation of poets, novelists, playwrights and essayists.Many of their works have earned fame beyond the frontiers of the country. Music pic The rich tradition of music of Bangladesh can be divided into three distinct categories - guiltless, folk and modern. The tradition of classical music, whether vocal or instrumental, is rooted in the ancient history of this subcontinent. It has been genteel with great patience and passion by devoted musicians over the centuries. inter nationally k at one time sarod players Ustad Alauddiri Khan and Ustad Ayet Ali Khan hail from the soil of this country. Folk music, nurtured through the ages by village bards. s the most popular and timeless form of music in Bangladesh. Rich in devotional mysticism and have it away ores, folk music exudes authentic flavor and charm of the soil. The most well- k instantaneouslyn forms are bhatia1i, baul, marfati, murshidi, bhaoaiya and gombhira. Some of the greatest exponents of ou r mystic and devotional songs were Lalan Fakir, Hasan Raja and Abbasuddin Ahmed. Dances terpsichore in Bangladesh draws freely from the sub continental classical forms as well as the folk, tribal, ballet and Middle Eastern strains. Of the tribal dances, particularly popular are Manipuri and Santhal.The Bulbul Academy of Fine Arts (BAFA), set up in Dacca in the early fifties, played a pioneering role in the promotion of dances in the country. A number of other cultural organizations have helped in popularizing the art. No cultura1 evening in this country is complete without a dance number. The cinema has also popularized dancing. With the recent creation of the Academy of playacting Arts in Dacca dancing in Bangladesh is expected to gain further impetus. Jatra (Folk looseness) is another vital chapter of Bengali culture. It depictsmythological episodesof love and tragedy.Legendaryplays of gallantryarealso popular,particularly in the ruralareas. In set about past jatra was the bi ggest entertainment means for the rural Bangalees and in that sense for 80% of the population since the same dowry of the population lived in rural Bangladesh. Now-a-days jatra has been fixed in the back seat in the entertainment era. Gradually western culture is occupying the place of traditional culture like Jatra. Different types of Drama are also popular in this society. Bangladesh Religion pic pic Islam, the state religion, is the creed of 88 percent of the population, almost all of whom adhere to the Sunni branch.Hindus make up most of the remainder, and the country has small communities of Buddhistics, Christians and animists. Bangladesh is one of the largest Muslim countries in the world. virtually Bangladeshi Muslims are Sunnis, but there is a small Shia community. Among religious festivals of Muslims Eidul Fitr, Eidul Azha, Eiday Miladunnabi, Muharram etc. are prominent. The contention that Bengali Muslims are all descended from lower-caste Hindus who were converted t o Islam is incorrect a substantial proportion are descendants of the Muslims who reached the subcontinent from elsewhere.Hinduism is professed by about 12 percent of the population. Durga Puja, Saraswati Puja, Kali Puja etc. are Hindu festivals. Hindus in Bangladesh are almost evenly distributed in all regions, with concentrations in Khulna, Jessore, Dinajpur, Faridpur, and Barisal. Biharis, who are not ethnic Bangalees, are Urdu-speaking Muslim refugees from Bihar and other part of northern India. They numbered about 1 million in 1971 but now had decreased to almost 600,000. They once dominated the upper levels of the society. They sided with Pakistan during the 1971 war.Hundreds of thousands of Biharis were repatriated to Pakistan after the war. tribal race constitutes less than 1 percent of the total population. They live in the Chittagong Hills and in the regions of Mymensingh, Sylhet, and Rajshahi. The majority of the tribal population live in rural areas. They differ in thei r social organization, marriage customs, birth and death rites, food, and other social customs from the people of the rest of the country. They speak Tibeto-Burman languages. In the mid-1980s, the percentage distribution of tribal population by religion was Hindu 24, Buddhist 44, Christian 13, and others 19.Major tribes are the Chakmas, Maghs (or Marmas), Tipras, Murangs, Kukis and Santals. The tribes tend to intermingle and could be distinguished from one another more by differences in their dialect, dress, and customs than by tribal cohesion. Only the Chakmas and Marmas display formal tribal organization. They are of mixed origin but reflect more Bengali influence than any other tribe. Unlike the other tribes, the Chakmas and Marmas generally live in the highland valleys. Most Chakmas are Buddhists, but some practice Hinduism or Animism. Economic InstitutionMany industries in Bangladesh are still primitive by modern standards. Despite continual domestic and international efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains a developing nation. Jute was once the economic engine of the country. Its share of the world merchandise market peaked in the Second World War and the late 1940s at 80% and even in the early seventies accounted for 70% of its export salary. However, polypropylene products began to substitute for jute products worldwide and the jute industry started to decline. Bangladesh grows very satisfying quantities of rice(chal), tea (Cha) and mustard.More than three quarters of Bangladeshs export earnings come from the garment industry, which began attracting foreign investors in the 1980s due to cut-price labour and low conversion cost. In 2002, the industry exported US$5billion worth of products. The industry now employs more than 3million workers, 90% of whom are women. A large part of foreign notes earnings also comes from the remittances sent by expatriates living in other countries. One significant contributor to the development of the economy has been the widespread multiplication of microcredit by Muhammad Yunus (awarded the Nobel peace prize in 2006) through the Grameen stick.By the late 1990s, Grameen Bank had 2. 3million members, along with 2. 5million members of other comparable organizations. In order to enhance economic growth, the government set up several export processing zones to attract foreign investment. These are managed by the Bangladesh Export Processing Zone Authority. AGRICULTURE pic Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries in the world with an annual per capita income of US$160. The agricultural sector provides the principal livelihood of the people in the country and is the main blood vessel of the national economy.According to statistics in 1990-1991, agriculture accounts for 46% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 59% of total employment. Agricultural productivity (yield per acre) is extremely low though, and Bangladesh continues to be a food-deficit country. Th e fair annual deficit ranges between 1. 5 million and 2. 5 million tons. To achieve self-sustained agricultural growth, several policies have been formulated. Keeping these policies in mind, agricultural management policies have been devised, and interventions have been made. However, these have not of necessity yielded the anticipated results.In Bangladesh, the vast majorities of people are landless and work as agricultural laborers (66% of the rural population are landless, agricultural laborers, according to the modish statistics). Although they are the single largest portion of the total population, they are the poorest, most deprived, preoccupied and neglected. Presently 45% of agricultural laborers have no work at all, and those who do get work have no job bail or reliable income there is no period of employment specify no fixed wage. Most of the time they are poorly paid. They are not registered and do not have any trade wedlock rights, no chance of bargaining.Agricult ural laborers in Bangladesh also have no base human rights. A huge percentage of them are inadequate or no housing, no educational opportunities and no rationing facility. Administrative and social oppression upon the land laborers is a common phenomenon. In addition to these concerns, Bangladesh is now facing various types of socio-economic and political problems. Among these, the most difficult, complicated and probably the most important issue is the agrarian question. One of the fundamental features of the economic awkwardness of the agrarian question is very relevant for Bangladesh like any other poor country of Asia.If the agrarian question is addressed properly, the highway of national economic development can be found. Land, no doubt, constitutes the most significant basis of sociopolitical power and the common factor of production for the overwhelming majority of the people. Today in Bangladesh the land problem remains as the main social problem it is the main problem af fecting the greatest number of people. Ownership of the land, its possession and cultivation, has sociopolitical overtones and economic implications, both simultaneously and mutually reacting around and reinforcing each other.Thus, an approach to locate the problems relating to land and their solution has to be, of necessity, comprehensive, multidimensional and dynamic. As the agricultural sector in Bangladesh has already experienced, these problems, and very recently the path and methods of alternative agriculture, are being talked about. This alternative thinking is often called regenerative, sustainable, ecological, total or natural agriculture, which are more or less based on the following principles ? Ensure as much or more productivity as chemical agriculture ?Do not press the natural environment ? Ensure sustainability ? Put less dependence on external inputs. Beside Agriculture there are several jobs that are through with(p) by rural people of our country now a days. som e jobs are related to Agriculture, These jobs are ? Rearing Cattle, Goat, Sheep. ? Poultry Business ? dairy farm business ? Fishery Related Jobs ? Village Teacher ? Quack cook ? Kamar Black Smith ? Kumar Pot Maker ? Swarnakaar Gold Smith ? Sweeper ? Tanti Weaver Political institution picThe Peoples Republic of Bangladesh is a unitary, independent and sovereign republic comprising three basic organs the executive, the legislature, and the judiciary. The chair is the Head of State and is elected by the members of fan tan. The President acts in consonance with the advice of the Prime Minister and the supreme command of the Armed Forces rests with him. The executive power of the Republic is exercised by or on the advice of the Prime Minister who commands the sign of the majority members of Parliament and is appointed by the President.Other Ministers, State Ministers and Deputy Ministers are appointed by the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister nominates the cabinet members from amon g Parliament members and one-tenths of the total members are from outside of the Parliament. The cabinet is collectively accountable to the Parliament. The giving medication is unitary in structure and parliamentary in form. Conclusion last we can conclude that Village Life is full of Loving sympathize with and Belonging. We can find here Peace Happiness chance to look with our relatives smell and feel our culture and Tradition.Thats why every year thousands of people run for the Village leaving their Urban Life in their Religious Occasions. Living in urban Life but we have to depend on this village people for food and other product which they produce in the fields. Lastly we can say that every people of our country have to visit their Village simultaneously so that the people and their Generation will always attach with the village Life and Village Culture. And If the Young Generation will Plan to Recover or develop our Village Life than We think that Bangladesh will see Prospe rity very soon.Read also Padma Bridge

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