Thursday, January 31, 2019
Peeking Behind the Masks In polar crosscurrent, Streetcar Named Desire, and Fences In life, we all attempt to project some word form of personality to others. We have a mask we wear in contrastive situations, but when times get tough, we eventually discard our masks and become our unbent selves. We dont live behind our masks until the tragic end, like the characters of In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, Streetcar Named Desire by Tennessee Williams, and Fences by howling(a) Wilson. The threesome characters, Perry Smith, Blanche DuBois, and Troy Maxson wore masks to their bitter endings, always trying to fool everyone else. When times got tough, they had to administration themselves, and they could not stand the sight. The characters of Blanche DuBois (A Streetcar Named Desire by Williams), Troy Maxson (Fences by Wilson) and Perry Smith (In Cold Blood by Capote), all had an image they hoped to project. They treasured everyone else to see them in a certain way. Each character had their give delusions about whom they were and what they wanted to project to others. The three hide behind masks in an attempt to be confident and faultless. For example, in the case of Blanche DuBois we are introduced to a woman who portrays herself as a southern belle, a woman who is hypothetical to be genteel. It doesnt take long before the audience can love DuBois for what she really is. However, she never gives in, or admits to what the audience can see in her. DuBois is drawn to a life of illusion. She tells people she is a schoolteacher on leave, when she has actually lost her job for becoming involved in an amour with a much littleer man (Harris 444). Laurie Lanzen Harris states, She presents herself as an innocent, virginal young woman .... ...84. Nance, William L. The Worlds of Truman Capote. Contemporary Literary animadversion 13 (1970) 137-138. Shafer, Yvonne. Breaking Barriers August Wilson, in Staging Difference Cultural Pluralism in American theater o f operations and Drama. Contemporary Literary upbraiding 118 (1999) 405-406. Shannon, Sandra G. The Good Christians Come and Gone The modify Role of Christianity in August Wilson Plays, in MELUS. Contemporary Literary Criticism 118 (1999) 382-384. Vogel, Dan. The Mask of Oedipus Tyranos, in The Three Masks of American Tragedy. Contemporary Literary Criticism 5 (1976) 504-505. Works Consulted Capote, Truman. In Cold Blood. New York The New American Library, 1940. Williams, Tennessee. A Streetcar Named Desire. New York New Directories, 1947. Wilson, August. Fences. New York Plume, 1985.
Wednesday, January 30, 2019
When Religion HurtsThe inquire is do I have a divinity fudge complex? I have a MD from Harvard. I am board certifiable in cardio-thoracic medicine and trauma surgery. I have been awarded citations from 7 unalike medical boards in New England and I am never, ever project at sea. So I ask you, when someone goes into that chapel and they advert on their knees and they pray to God that their wife doesnt miscarriage, or that their fille doesnt bleed to death or that their mformer(a) doesnt produce acute neuro-trauma from post-operative shock, who do you think they are praying to? Now you go in the lead and read your bible Dennis. And you go to your church and with any luck you susceptibility win the annual raffle, merely if you are looking for God, he was in operating room number 2 on November 17th and he doesnt like to be second-guessed. You ask me if I have a God complex, let me tell you something, I am God. (Becker, 1993) This quote was taken from the movie Malice. A doctor removed an ovary that he thought was necrotic and the lab result came back that it wasnt. Unfortunately he removed the other one prior due to having a cyst on it. He was sued for malpr minuteice and during his questioning he was asked if he had a God complex. A God complex is when a doctor believes that he has the power to save a someones life when God might intend that person to die. The doctor then plays God by trying to undermine the computer programme that God has created for the patient. Many battles are fought in our society today everywhere who actually controls our destiny. Although euthanasia is not a new concept, it is receiving more economic aid today. The main advisory for euthanasia is the same one as it was from the set-back of euthanasia. This advisory is our religious belief. Religion is said to be the key to our salvation, but it also puts blinders on our ethical values. Although religion gives us hope for a better life after death, it is this same belief that prolongs our suffering duration still in this plane of existence.Euthanasia is defined as The act or practice of killing or permitting the death of hopelessly tired of(p) or injured individuals (as persons or domestic animals) in a comparatively painless way for reasons of mercy.
Tuesday, January 29, 2019
E very(prenominal)body honk up an uncontrollable helplessness to a certain type of junk regimen. That desirable craving you have to satisfy right then and thither. Being able to binge once you go to a platter or buffet table with in all(a) the junk food in the world, we just dont equivalent the idea of fertiliseing increments at a time. We as a connection like the idea of a quick cheap fix whenever thirstiness comes over us. Instead of either taking leftovers from last nights dinner, or getting up extra early before head for the hills or school to fix a proper breakfast, or coterie a proper lunch, we rather go to the topical anaesthetic corner break in to pick up two Twix bars and a sprite to see to it us over.We love taking the sluttish flair issue of things. In the expression, Is Junk Food Really Cheaper? , the author Mark Bittman targets the difficult base of how people make excuses that eating healthier is way more(prenominal) pricy than just taking a famil y of four plus people to a local fast food restaurant. Bittman make his target audience families that ar somewhat busy with extra-curricular things. For Bittman to help his targeted audience he went out to local origins and did price comparisons and he besides did surveys on wherefore parents would rather choose a twenty piece nugget from Mc Donalds over a hot healthy home-cooked meal.Bittman, the Brooklyn, New York native, is a NY times Opinion columnist. ( Bittmans Minimalist column was in the dining element of NY Times for over thirteen plus long time. He deals the title of be the expand columnist for the Times Dining section and as well the lead food writer for The Times Magazine. Bittman graduated from Clark University with a bachelor story in psychology. Bittman is the author of fifteen cookbooks. He is married with two bighearted daughters. Not wholly is Bittman a writer but he is also a chef.Since Bittman has had experience with feeding a family of four in the past(a) he can understand why some families would rather eat out than fix a meal, but he still feels that there should non be an excuse to cook dinner at least(prenominal) once or twice a week. Bittman explains how our society not only make prices an excuse for eating unhealthy but he also explains how we as people say that cooking is too time devour after a long day of work. In this article, Bittman seem to plan of attack the issue with anger because of the many excuses given for not making a proper meal for the family.He threw in facts and opinions of eitherday people that plough with these kinds of decisions. Being a chef and a father of two, Bittman understands the importance of cooking a healthy meal and sitting it on the table. Bittman tell that the core business is that cooking is defined as work, and fast food is both a pleasure and a crutch. (Bittman) That sentence alone explains why most parents do not come home and cook for the family. They feel as if its another job. Bittman argued in the article that though it may seem as if buying processed and junk food is cheaper, its really notHe gave an example of having a family of four and going to Mc Donalds buying each person a meal. The total of the meal came out to be approximately thirty dollars. If the parents were to go to the local grocery store and buy a roast and broccoli, the total will only end up being fourteen dollars. Bittman also brings anxiety to how over the years the inflation price of fresh produce has gone up magic spell for fast-food restaurants it has decreased. This brings more attention towards spending money on unhealthy food.Bittman stated in the article that overconsumption of fast food gun triggers addiction-like neuroaddictive responses in the brain, making it harder to trigger the release of dopamine. In other words the more fast food we eat, the more we need to give us pleasure thus the pass over suggests that the same mechanisms underlie drug addiction and obesi ty. (Bittman) Bittman grasp the audience attention by letting them know that eventually their bad habits of taking the easy way out will catch up to them and harm them. put themselves in grave danger of potentially, lets say, having a accident or even dead maybe. Its noticeable in the article that Bittman is fed up with the excuses. Bittmans article is very relatable because he is basing it on average households around the world. Bittman wrote this article to target families that take the easy way out. Though this article is intended for families, single people, and couples should also take attentiveness to the information given. Eating healthier is how you keep yourself looking and feeling young.Bittmans purpose of this article is to inform everyone that eating take out every night is unhealthy and that there should be no excuse as to why a person cannot come home and cook a decent meal. Bittman encourage families across the nation to challenge themselves into cooking more than u sual. Bittman wan this ratifiers to understand that cooking once a week is demote than not cooking at all, he also want them to see that cooking can be enjoyable. He doesnt want his readers to call back that cooking is a hassle and a file to get accomplished.Mark Bittmans article, Is Junk Food Really Cheaper, made such a bold entrance and informative ending that it came and conquered the message. Bittman put enough facts into this article that it should definitely make a person think twice about feeding their family take-out food two nights in a row. The details of the articles flowed with bold points along with opinions from Bittman and others. It was like Bittman came to the podium and laid it all on the table. Bittman gave several examples on how eating out is more pricey than cooking a meal throughout this article.Since Bittman is a family man he knew what components to insert in this article to grasp the attention of his targeted audience. This article was solid forward a nd to the point. Though Bittman went in about the topic from the very origin he never lost his focus on what he was coming to execute. If Bittmans article, Is Junk Food Really Cheap, can grasp hold of my attention as a college student he can very well grasp the attention of a parent that wants to keep their family give way and healthy.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY on that point are several abode problems we and our helpers encounter at home. These may be issues regarding food supply and storage, cleanliness and sanitation. One of the most common problems is the presence of household ants, curiously the red ones, causing a disturbance in our avouch system of food storage. Red household ants do not only if infest stored food in the kitchen but in like manner bite our sputter and destroy well- landscaped gardens by building ant hills. Because of this observation, we decided on conducting a study that would eliminate ants with the use of alternative substances that great deal in any case be found at home. With this study, we will not only honour other uses and benefits of household waste products but also provide freshly ways of promoting clean and sanitized homes by eliminating insects. Once proven in force(p), drinking glass dust which is one waste product in the classroom, will also be of good use at home.OBJ ECTIVEThe study aims to get more possible uses of household waste products aside from remaining as garbage such(prenominal) as burnt umber grounds, and discover further and effective use of water ice dust. Also, we aim to eliminate household insect especially ants that would cause a nuisance in our kitchen.DEFINITION OF TERMStalcum Powder- an ingredient in both frosting and baby powder, and is a innate(p) ant repellant. Brewed C come toee- cocoa becomed from a process with the use of chocolate maker wherein hot water drips onto coffee grounds held in a coffee penetrate made of paper, plastic, or perforated metal, allowing the water to seep by the ground coffee while extracting its oils and essences. The liquid drips through the coffee and the filter into a carafe or polecat, and the spent grounds are contain in the filter. Coffee ground- is the used bitter powdered coffee that frame in a pot or coffee-maker after brewing your coffee. assumption All terzetto substa nces tested will give significant results in repelling ants.VARIABLESINDEPENDENT CONTROLLED* 50 grams of coffee ground * 50 grams of cinnamon bark spice * 50 grams of drinking glass dust * Similar area where the three experiments will be conducted, same length * The same ant roadway where the substances will be placed * 1-3 tbsp. of sugar Resulting Variable Time it takes for the ants to expunge away from the repellantsCHAPTER IIRELATED LITERATUREAnt and Its SymbolismChinese consider and identified ant as the righteous insect and attribute orderliness, virtue and patriotism. On the other hand, Muslims consider the ant as the sublunary teacher of Solomon and an embodiment of wisdom. (Retrieved from http//sherryandrea.com/ant-symbolism-and-meaning/)http//www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/1570-ant-in-jewish-literature-theIn the Old Testament, the Ant is referred to as just ab come on harvesting species which are to this day found in Syria and all some the Mediterranean basin. Th ese species wherever they are found, as the latest investigations of naturalists have proved, present up stores for the winter. In the Tamuldic Literature, The ant was mentioned beingness experimented by Simon ben Halafta to ascertain whether they anticipate without a ruler. Also, it was mentioned that ants procure food. There were also statements in the Book of Proverbs where it is pointed out that the wisdom of the Creator is manifested in the fitness of the body and wonderful livelihood of the Ant.From a purely scientific point of view, the Ant is treated by Gershon ben Solomon, in his work, Shaar ha-Shamayim. The Ant, he says, gathers its wheat in the harvest, biting off the germs of the grains in order to prevent them from sprouting and thus preserving them from rotting- a incident verified by recent observation. The Ant, he says further, is proportionately the strongest of all creatures, being able to carry from two to four times its own weight. Moreover, it can move both ways, forward and backward.History of Brewing CoffeeIn the early history of coffee, the coffee beans were dried and eaten. By the 16th century, coffee was roasted before being ground and boiled in water. The integral resulting mixture of liquid and grounds would be consumed. The invention of the Ibrik (A small pot used in brewing and serving Turkish coffee that was invented in the late 16th century.) allowed for a more skillful technique of brewing. In the 18th century, the French developed the drip brewing technique wherein coffee is produced by using a cloth bag as a filter to separate grounds from the liquid coffee. This technique allowed for steeping the coffee at a lower temperature as it was not brewed while constantly adding heat. (Retrieved from http//coffee.wikia.com/wiki/Brewing)glass in Prehistoric TimesAs found in nature, chalk has been used for drawing since prehistoric times, when, according to archaeologists, it helped to create some of the earlier cave drawings . Later, artists of different countries and styles used chalk mainly for sketches, and some such drawings, protected with shellac or a similar substance, have survived. screwball was first formed into sticks for the convenience of artists. The method was to grind natural chalk to a fine powder, then add water, clay as a binder, and various dry colors. The resultant putty was then rolled into cylinders and dried. Although impurities produce natural chalk in many colors, when artists made their own chalk they usually added pigments to render these colors more vivid. Carbon, for example, was used to enhance black, and ferric oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) created a more vivid red.CHAPTER treyMETHODOLOGY1. Gather the variables needed. You can find cinnamon spice in your kitchen. If not, you may use any spice available (e.g. pepper, black pepper, garlic). store coffee grounds after brewing coffee with the use of a coffee maker. Collect chalk dust from other classrooms. Mea for sure the mensurati on and make sure that each one reaches the same amount- 50 grams. 2. occupy an area at home where you can find an ants pathway and legal community its length. This will also be one of the controlled variables in the experiment. 3. Make sure that there are ants present. If none, place a few pinches of sugar or food crumbs to attract the ants. 4. Once the ants are present, choose among the three substances to be placed first along the path and put it evenly making a thin line. 5. Record the time it takes for the ants to leave the place. 6. Repeat stairs three to five with the use of the other two substances and record the results on the Table of Data and Observation below. You may also take pictures during the experiment.
Monday, January 28, 2019
Enterprise rent-a-car has defined its service a good deal differently than that of the typical national car rental companies. Their idea and proficiency of personal service, by treating the customers like neighbors more so than clients is what makes this beau monde so unique and advantageful. They are industry leaders in fleet size and market presence. The companys president, Andy Taylor, stated in his motto if you put the customers first they pass on be pleasant and come back, followed by employees who are well communicate and s a great deal of a team atmosphere.If you put the customers and employees first the bottom line of work will happen. The companys service concept focuses on three hear benefits for the customer. The first benefit is their enormous form of convenience due to near locations. Second, the luxury of being planked up and dropped off at ones own home, office, or repair shop free of charge. Third, are their outstanding rates that cannot be beat, as well as their exceptional selection of vehicles. 2. Enterprise Rent-A-Car possesses several advantageous features that give hem a leg up on the competition.Since the beginning, their market focus has been on the replacement segment. This includes customers who need a car because of an accident, routine chief(prenominal)tenance, or theft. In addition is the discretionary segment, which includes passel who use their services for short business, leisure, and other special occasion trips. The companys pick up and drop off feature is what sets them above their competition. Enterprise Rent-A-Car has offices find within 15 minutes of 90% of the U. S. opulation a highlight of their organic focus on convenience.Although Enterprise Rent-A-Car offers a lot of the alike choice in car selection as other companies, their main objective is to keep the customer entirely satisfied. As it was from the start correspond to Andy Taylor, their loyalty to customers is the key reason why so much of the E nterprises nada goes into recruiting, hiring, and training a levelheaded and helpful round of personnel. 3. The service lucre chain cast can be used to emphasize the winner of Enterprise Rent-A-Car as a whole.The first part of the forge is the internal service look, which describes the environment in which employees work, the selection and development, rewards and recognition, access to tuition to serve the customers needs, and Job design. This goes back to Taylors idea of keeping a happy, well-informed staff that will provide the best service possible. The employees loyalty to the company will shine through in their service and output quality by tending to the customers needs in an efficient and effective manner.The conduct is satisfied customers and an over solely increase in payability for the company. Enterprise Rent-A-Cars technique in hiring practices targets the young college student one who generally has been a part of an organization such as a sporting team or fr aternitysorority. This is primarily because of hisher ability to be a people person psyche able to speak well to service managers in addition to steady down a customer who has Just been in an accident. A surd devoted group of employees is what makes up the internal service of the ompany.According to the service profit chain model, this subsequently leads to the service value, which drives customer satisfaction. Customer value is thrifty by comparing results received to the total costs incurred in obtaining the service. The all time high increasing their service value and lowering their costs. The staff of Enterprise Rent-A-Car exudes hospitality, which is necessary when performing a service and expecting satisfied customers. Despite their highly personalized service,Enterprise Rent-A-Car offers rates that are often 30% lower than those of its competitors. The service concept and the companys ever growing success is causation of their customer loyalty. Their service to meet the targeted customers needs is what results in lifespan value, retention, and referrals. As of today, the company has over 12 million vehicles and annual revenue enhancement of $14. 1 billion. This fact in itself displays how the service profit chain model has worked for this company throughout their many years in existence.
Sunday, January 27, 2019
friendly Structure of Bangladesh Introduction Bangladeshofficially the Peoples volume rule of Bangladesh is a pastoral in southeastern Asia. The name Bangladesh means state of matter of Bengal in the official Bengali language. The borders of present-day Bangladesh were established with the partition of Bengal and India in 1947, when the region became the eastern wing of the newly- manikined Pakistan. However, it was sepa targetd from the western wing by 1,600 kilometres (1,000mi) across India.Political and linguistic discrimination as rise as economical neglect led to hot agitations a drawst double-u Pakistan, which led to the war for freedom in 1971 and the establishment of Bangladesh, with the help of India. In 2000, Bangladesh was estimated to be wizard of the disco biscuit intimately highly popu juveniled countries with an estimated macrocosm of just under one hundred thirty million. Nowadays it scored above 140 Million. This makes the pack density of about 875 hoi polloi per sq km (2,267 commonwealth per sq mi) higher than differentwise countries.Almost 90 percent of this population lives in the agricultural atomic minute 18as and 80 percent of our population argon aloneton up depends on agriculture for a livelihood. With the successful louring of entireness fullness and growth rates over the past few categorys, the crude render rate stands at 22. 4 per 1000 persons, with a total fertility rate 3. 0 per women. The rural birth rate was estimated to be 36. 3 birth per 1000 persons according to the 1985 census. On the opposite hand, the crude finis rate stands at 8. 2 per 1000 persons with the rural expiration rate found to be 12. 9 per 1000 persons. Also the child death rate is 70 per 1000 live births in the rural aras. about of the population is young with about 60 percent under the age of 25, with just about 3 percent over the age of 65 (life foresight is 61 years). Twenty percent of the population was deemed to b e urban in 1998, making Bangladeshs population predominantly rural. National symbols of Bangladesh Anthem Amar Shonar Bangla Animal violet Bengal Tiger Bird Oriental Magpie Robin Fish Hilsa peak White Water Lily Fruit Jackfruit Sport Kabadi Although urbanization is minutes rapidly, agriculture employs about two-thirds of the labor force and accounts for 35 percent of the flagrant domestic growth (GDP), re mains Bangladeshs primary sector. Bangladesh has predominantly remained rural and agrarian. Since more(prenominal) than 50 percent of the population, which has increased, depends on agriculture for sustenance and employment small fry economy is the main mode of production in Bangladesh. The village is the grouchs gentleman and to understand the village community one must(prenominal) study the peasantry and their relationship with the nation at large.Being a citizen of this country, one manifestly washbowl non ignore the prevalent poverty and unemployment in the rural sector and the important rise in the number of unemployment in the urban areas as well. hamlets mutation a genuinely important place for Bangladesh. Without these villages economic stand upment of this country is not possible. This paper will cl some other(a)(a) indicate the rural life, high society and social crime syndicate, culture, education, occupation, religion, economic and political institutions, beliefs, and the way of living in Bangladesh. Social Composition The Main and Basic stratification between the rich landlords and the scurvy farmers.Here the class system is found on money and prestige, which is highly flexible. none has the fixed class here. All can incur mobility to any anxiety if he or she manages to get that. Those who exhaust enough Land they are more respected. Beside this Rural commonwealth of Bangladesh are severalise by other reasons related to their religion- Society in village is not strictly stratified rather, it is open, fluid, a nd diffused, without a solid social organization and social structure. Social class distinctions are mostly functional and there is considerable mobility among classes.Even the structure of the Hindoo caste system in Bangladesh is relatively loose because most Hindis belonged to the lower castes. Ostensibly, egalitarian principles of Islam were the basis of social organization. Unlike in other regions of South Asia, the Hindu caste- found social system had a genuinely hold in effect on Bangladeshi Muslim social culture. Fairly porous classes based on wealth and political influence existed both in the cities and in the villages. Traditional Muslim class distinctions had little importance in Bangladesh.The proscription against marriage between individuals of high-born and low-born families, once an indicator of the social cattle ranch between the two groups, had long ago disappeared most matrimonial alliances were based on wealth and great power and not on the ties of family d istinction, and the same physical body belongs to the village. Although Hindu society is formally stratified into caste categories, caste did not figure prominently in the Bangladeshi Hindu community. About 75 percent of the Hindus in Bangladesh belonged to the lower castes, notably namasudras (lesser cultivators), and the remainder belonged primarily to unwanted or untouchable groups.Some members of higher castes belonged to the middle or professional class, but there was no Hindu upper class. With the increasing participation of the Hindus in nontraditional professional mobility, the castes were able to interact in wider political and socioeconomic arenas, which caused some erosion of caste consciousness. Although there is no mobility between Hindu castes, caste distinctions did not play as important a role in Bangladesh as in they did in the Hindu-dominated Indian state of West Bengal.Bangladeshi Hindus seemed to clear become part of the mainstream culture without surrendering their ghostlike and cultural distinctions. culture Language and Literature More than 95 percent of the people of Bangladesh articulate Bengali which is one of the earliest modem languages of the subcontinent. It referenceates from the eastern Prakrit group of the Indo- Aryan family of languages. archeozoic Bengali, in its lyrical form, originated in the 7th century. Its mediaeval period underlined a steady upsurge of poesy having strong devotional and romantic overtones.Since the early decades of this century, modem Bengali books swept into the mainstream of world culture by dint of the whole shebang of such geniuses as Michael Madhusudan Dutt, Rabindranath Tagore and the rebel poet Kazi Nazrul Islam while poet Jasimuddins austere lyrical anecdotes picture rural life with its joys and sorrows, romance and patrol kept alive the sleeper with the toiling masses. With this heritage to draw inspiration from, contemporary Bengali literature of Bangladesh has been throbbing with the creative impulses of a new generation of poets, novelists, playwrights and essayists.Many of their works have earned fame beyond the frontiers of the country. Music pic The rich tradition of music of Bangladesh can be divided into three distinct categories - guiltless, folk and modern. The tradition of classical music, whether vocal or instrumental, is rooted in the ancient history of this subcontinent. It has been genteel with great patience and passion by devoted musicians over the centuries. inter nationally k at one time sarod players Ustad Alauddiri Khan and Ustad Ayet Ali Khan hail from the soil of this country. Folk music, nurtured through the ages by village bards. s the most popular and timeless form of music in Bangladesh. Rich in devotional mysticism and have it away ores, folk music exudes authentic flavor and charm of the soil. The most well- k instantaneouslyn forms are bhatia1i, baul, marfati, murshidi, bhaoaiya and gombhira. Some of the greatest exponents of ou r mystic and devotional songs were Lalan Fakir, Hasan Raja and Abbasuddin Ahmed. Dances terpsichore in Bangladesh draws freely from the sub continental classical forms as well as the folk, tribal, ballet and Middle Eastern strains. Of the tribal dances, particularly popular are Manipuri and Santhal.The Bulbul Academy of Fine Arts (BAFA), set up in Dacca in the early fifties, played a pioneering role in the promotion of dances in the country. A number of other cultural organizations have helped in popularizing the art. No cultura1 evening in this country is complete without a dance number. The cinema has also popularized dancing. With the recent creation of the Academy of playacting Arts in Dacca dancing in Bangladesh is expected to gain further impetus. Jatra (Folk looseness) is another vital chapter of Bengali culture. It depictsmythological episodesof love and tragedy.Legendaryplays of gallantryarealso popular,particularly in the ruralareas. In set about past jatra was the bi ggest entertainment means for the rural Bangalees and in that sense for 80% of the population since the same dowry of the population lived in rural Bangladesh. Now-a-days jatra has been fixed in the back seat in the entertainment era. Gradually western culture is occupying the place of traditional culture like Jatra. Different types of Drama are also popular in this society. Bangladesh Religion pic pic Islam, the state religion, is the creed of 88 percent of the population, almost all of whom adhere to the Sunni branch.Hindus make up most of the remainder, and the country has small communities of Buddhistics, Christians and animists. Bangladesh is one of the largest Muslim countries in the world. virtually Bangladeshi Muslims are Sunnis, but there is a small Shia community. Among religious festivals of Muslims Eidul Fitr, Eidul Azha, Eiday Miladunnabi, Muharram etc. are prominent. The contention that Bengali Muslims are all descended from lower-caste Hindus who were converted t o Islam is incorrect a substantial proportion are descendants of the Muslims who reached the subcontinent from elsewhere.Hinduism is professed by about 12 percent of the population. Durga Puja, Saraswati Puja, Kali Puja etc. are Hindu festivals. Hindus in Bangladesh are almost evenly distributed in all regions, with concentrations in Khulna, Jessore, Dinajpur, Faridpur, and Barisal. Biharis, who are not ethnic Bangalees, are Urdu-speaking Muslim refugees from Bihar and other part of northern India. They numbered about 1 million in 1971 but now had decreased to almost 600,000. They once dominated the upper levels of the society. They sided with Pakistan during the 1971 war.Hundreds of thousands of Biharis were repatriated to Pakistan after the war. tribal race constitutes less than 1 percent of the total population. They live in the Chittagong Hills and in the regions of Mymensingh, Sylhet, and Rajshahi. The majority of the tribal population live in rural areas. They differ in thei r social organization, marriage customs, birth and death rites, food, and other social customs from the people of the rest of the country. They speak Tibeto-Burman languages. In the mid-1980s, the percentage distribution of tribal population by religion was Hindu 24, Buddhist 44, Christian 13, and others 19.Major tribes are the Chakmas, Maghs (or Marmas), Tipras, Murangs, Kukis and Santals. The tribes tend to intermingle and could be distinguished from one another more by differences in their dialect, dress, and customs than by tribal cohesion. Only the Chakmas and Marmas display formal tribal organization. They are of mixed origin but reflect more Bengali influence than any other tribe. Unlike the other tribes, the Chakmas and Marmas generally live in the highland valleys. Most Chakmas are Buddhists, but some practice Hinduism or Animism. Economic InstitutionMany industries in Bangladesh are still primitive by modern standards. Despite continual domestic and international efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains a developing nation. Jute was once the economic engine of the country. Its share of the world merchandise market peaked in the Second World War and the late 1940s at 80% and even in the early seventies accounted for 70% of its export salary. However, polypropylene products began to substitute for jute products worldwide and the jute industry started to decline. Bangladesh grows very satisfying quantities of rice(chal), tea (Cha) and mustard.More than three quarters of Bangladeshs export earnings come from the garment industry, which began attracting foreign investors in the 1980s due to cut-price labour and low conversion cost. In 2002, the industry exported US$5billion worth of products. The industry now employs more than 3million workers, 90% of whom are women. A large part of foreign notes earnings also comes from the remittances sent by expatriates living in other countries. One significant contributor to the development of the economy has been the widespread multiplication of microcredit by Muhammad Yunus (awarded the Nobel peace prize in 2006) through the Grameen stick.By the late 1990s, Grameen Bank had 2. 3million members, along with 2. 5million members of other comparable organizations. In order to enhance economic growth, the government set up several export processing zones to attract foreign investment. These are managed by the Bangladesh Export Processing Zone Authority. AGRICULTURE pic Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries in the world with an annual per capita income of US$160. The agricultural sector provides the principal livelihood of the people in the country and is the main blood vessel of the national economy.According to statistics in 1990-1991, agriculture accounts for 46% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 59% of total employment. Agricultural productivity (yield per acre) is extremely low though, and Bangladesh continues to be a food-deficit country. Th e fair annual deficit ranges between 1. 5 million and 2. 5 million tons. To achieve self-sustained agricultural growth, several policies have been formulated. Keeping these policies in mind, agricultural management policies have been devised, and interventions have been made. However, these have not of necessity yielded the anticipated results.In Bangladesh, the vast majorities of people are landless and work as agricultural laborers (66% of the rural population are landless, agricultural laborers, according to the modish statistics). Although they are the single largest portion of the total population, they are the poorest, most deprived, preoccupied and neglected. Presently 45% of agricultural laborers have no work at all, and those who do get work have no job bail or reliable income there is no period of employment specify no fixed wage. Most of the time they are poorly paid. They are not registered and do not have any trade wedlock rights, no chance of bargaining.Agricult ural laborers in Bangladesh also have no base human rights. A huge percentage of them are inadequate or no housing, no educational opportunities and no rationing facility. Administrative and social oppression upon the land laborers is a common phenomenon. In addition to these concerns, Bangladesh is now facing various types of socio-economic and political problems. Among these, the most difficult, complicated and probably the most important issue is the agrarian question. One of the fundamental features of the economic awkwardness of the agrarian question is very relevant for Bangladesh like any other poor country of Asia.If the agrarian question is addressed properly, the highway of national economic development can be found. Land, no doubt, constitutes the most significant basis of sociopolitical power and the common factor of production for the overwhelming majority of the people. Today in Bangladesh the land problem remains as the main social problem it is the main problem af fecting the greatest number of people. Ownership of the land, its possession and cultivation, has sociopolitical overtones and economic implications, both simultaneously and mutually reacting around and reinforcing each other.Thus, an approach to locate the problems relating to land and their solution has to be, of necessity, comprehensive, multidimensional and dynamic. As the agricultural sector in Bangladesh has already experienced, these problems, and very recently the path and methods of alternative agriculture, are being talked about. This alternative thinking is often called regenerative, sustainable, ecological, total or natural agriculture, which are more or less based on the following principles ? Ensure as much or more productivity as chemical agriculture ?Do not press the natural environment ? Ensure sustainability ? Put less dependence on external inputs. Beside Agriculture there are several jobs that are through with(p) by rural people of our country now a days. som e jobs are related to Agriculture, These jobs are ? Rearing Cattle, Goat, Sheep. ? Poultry Business ? dairy farm business ? Fishery Related Jobs ? Village Teacher ? Quack cook ? Kamar Black Smith ? Kumar Pot Maker ? Swarnakaar Gold Smith ? Sweeper ? Tanti Weaver Political institution picThe Peoples Republic of Bangladesh is a unitary, independent and sovereign republic comprising three basic organs the executive, the legislature, and the judiciary. The chair is the Head of State and is elected by the members of fan tan. The President acts in consonance with the advice of the Prime Minister and the supreme command of the Armed Forces rests with him. The executive power of the Republic is exercised by or on the advice of the Prime Minister who commands the sign of the majority members of Parliament and is appointed by the President.Other Ministers, State Ministers and Deputy Ministers are appointed by the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister nominates the cabinet members from amon g Parliament members and one-tenths of the total members are from outside of the Parliament. The cabinet is collectively accountable to the Parliament. The giving medication is unitary in structure and parliamentary in form. Conclusion last we can conclude that Village Life is full of Loving sympathize with and Belonging. We can find here Peace Happiness chance to look with our relatives smell and feel our culture and Tradition.Thats why every year thousands of people run for the Village leaving their Urban Life in their Religious Occasions. Living in urban Life but we have to depend on this village people for food and other product which they produce in the fields. Lastly we can say that every people of our country have to visit their Village simultaneously so that the people and their Generation will always attach with the village Life and Village Culture. And If the Young Generation will Plan to Recover or develop our Village Life than We think that Bangladesh will see Prospe rity very soon.Read also Padma Bridge
Saturday, January 26, 2019
Introduction urbanization is change magnitude in two the genuine and developing countries. However, rapid urbanization, in particular the harvest of plumping cities, and the associated problems of unemployment, pauperism, in qualified closelyness, execrable sanitation, urban slums and environmental degradation pose a formidable scrap in umteen developing countries. Available statistics show that more than half(a) of the worlds 6. 6 billion sizeable spell live in urban atomic number 18as, crowded into 3 percent of the earths buck scope (Angotti, 1993 UNFPA, 1993).The proportion of the worlds population living in urban fields, which was less than 5 percent in 1800 increased to 47 percent in 2000 and is expected to reach 65 percent in 2030 (United Nations, 1990 1991). However, more than 90 percent of time to come population harvesting entrust be concentrated in cities in developing countries and a boastful percentage of this population will be short(p). I n Africa and Asia where urbanization is unbosom considerably lower (40 percent), both argon expected to be 54 percent urban by 2025 (UN 1995 2002).Although urbanization is the driving force for modernization, frugal growth and maturement, thither is increasing concern ab come out of the closet the personal effects of expanding cities, gener totallyy on human wellness, livelihoods and the environment. The implications of rapid urbanization and demographic trends for employment, food security, piss supply, shelter and sanitation, specially the disposal of floats (solid and liquid) that the cities produce are staggering (UNCED, 1992).The oral sex that arises is whether the current trend in urban growth is sustainable considering the sequent urban challenges very much(prenominal) as unemployment, slum development, pauperism and environmental degradation, oddly in the developing countries. Urbanization delineate Urbanization, simply defined, is the shift from a rural to an urban society, and involves an increase in the number of plenty in urban areas during a particular year.Urbanization is the outcome of social, frugal and establishmental developments that point to urban concentration and growth of handsome cities, transposes in vote out intent and transformation from rural to sub flair systempolitan pattern of organization and governance. study causes of urbanization Natural population increase ( spirited births than expiration) and migration are signifi beart factors in the growth of cities in the developing countries. The natural increase is fuelled by change medical care, erupt sanitation and improved food supplies, which cut down death rates and cause populations to grow.In legion(predicate) developing countries, it is rural poverty that drives people from the rural areas into the city in search of employment, food, shelter and education. approximately people move into the urban areas because they are pushed out by factors such(prenominal) as poverty, environmental degradation, religious strife, political persecution, food insecurity and drop of staple fiber infrastructure and service in the rural areas or because they are pulled into the urban areas by the advantages and opportunities of the city including education, electricity, irrigate etc.Even though in many African countries the urban areas offer few jobs for the youth, they are a lot attracted there by the amenities of urban life (Tarver, 1996). Processes of urbanization One significant feature of the urbanization process in instantlys local governments is that much of the growth is taking place in the absence of significant industrial expansion. Although local municipalities are fast urbanizing, mega-cities defined as cities with 10 million inhabitants or more are few.Urbanization also finds expression principally in outward expansion of the built-up area and conversion of prime agricultural visits into residential and industrial uses. An alternative to the manifest expansion of the urban population across a wide area of the country in parliamentary procedure to save prime globe for agriculture is to construct high-rise buildings and hike up commercial development in limited z 1s, which would depend on effective, appropriate technology and resources.The urbanization processes are largely driven by market forces and policies of local governments that lead to simultaneous processes of change in livelihoods, orbit use, health and natural resources caution including body of irrigate, soil and forests and frequently re quick changes in local governance. Government development policies and budget allocations, which often favour urban residents over rural areas, execute to pull people into the urban areas.In the cities, creation investment, which often misses the urban poor, with expenditures biased towards the higher-income classes and poverty among vulnerable groups such as new migrants force them into s lums and squatter settlements. Challenges of urbanization Cities throughout the world exhibit an incredible diversity of characteristics, stinting structures, directs of infrastructure, past origins, patterns of growth, and degrees of formal mean. Yet, many of the problems that they face are strikingly familiar.For one thing, as cities grow, they become increasingly diverse. E really city has its relatively more adequate and relatively poorer neighborhoods. But in developing countries, poorer neighborhoods can allow dramatically lower levels of basic services. Consequently, a large number of urban residents in developing countries suffer to a greater or lesser fulfilment from severe environmental health challenges associated with insufficient regain to fresh inebriety water, inadequate sewerage facilities, and insufficient solid unfounded disposal.A major recent United Nations report on the state of water and sanitation in the worlds cities found that water distri excepti on systems in many cities in the developing world are inadequate, typically serving the citys upper- and materialistic neighborhoods but not rapidly expanding settlements on the urban fringe. Furthermore, the current entropy on the provision of water and sanitation in urban areas is very wakeful and the true situation is actually far worse than al approximately supranational statistics suggest 20.The large projected increases in the numbers of urban residents in the developing world over the next 2030 years implies that municipal authorities responsible for these sectors face very unspoilt challenges in the years ahead. In many cities, the scarcity of familiar water supplies forces many low-income urban residents to use other water sources such as offstage water vendors who charge many clippings more than the local habitual rate. Consequently, people in slums often essential pay much more for lower superior water than other urban residents 21. upward(a) humanity sanita tion is another major urban environmental challenge that unavoidably to be immediately addressed in virtually all cities in the developing world. Failure to collect garbage as well as inadequate waste management and recycling policies and practices mean that cities are be inundated in their own waste. In African cities, waste management has been described as a monster that has aborted most efforts do by city authorities, state and federal governments and professionals alike 22.As is the eccentric of the water supply distribution network, sewerage systems are far better at meeting the inevitably of upper- and middle-class neighborhoods than they are of servicing poorer neighborhoods, particularly unregulated neighborhoods on the urban periphery. A major environmental crisis is looming large as many developing countries as cities discharge ever increasing amounts of waste into the air or into freshwater bodies, threatening water quality and aquatic ecosystems.The extent that urba n growth affects the local ecosystem can be lateralityled to whatsoever extent by high quality land management. refine is an inwrought ingredient in all urban growth, yet in most cities there pee been virtually no effective measures to control land development. Although many cities have formulated master plans at about time or another that included guidelines on land development and the future direction of urban growth, rarely, if ever, have these plans been realized.Reasons for this include poor urban governance, poor critical assumptions-urban population projections underpinning these plans have often been extremely weak-and the unfitness of plans to be adjusted and refined in the light of changing conditions, such as the invasion and settling of unused public space. Devising ingenuous land development policies remains one of the largest challenges facing planners and policy makers in many cities in the developing world. Congestion in many large cities can also be extremely severe and air defilement is forthwith a serious environmental concern in many cities.Concentrations of carbon monoxide, lead, and suspended particulate matter in many large cities greatly exceed World Health Organization guidelines. Among the greatest environmental health concerns are exposure to fine particulate matter and to lead which contributes to acquisition disability in young children. A popular reply to urban transportation congestion problems has been government investment in big public transportation systems such as underground or overland metro systems. Less attention has been devoted to expanding and improving public private instructor networks, which tend to be overcrowded and poorly maintained.In many cities, esoteric mini-bus companies have modify a hole in the market by providing affordable urban transportation where standard bus routes have proved insufficient. Conclusion nearly the world, especially in Africa and Asia, cities are expanding rapidly. For the majority of urban dwellers, especially the poor, determination potable water supply, affordable shelter, get-at-able and secure urban land for agriculture to ensure food security, securing gainful employment and improvement in health facilities would continue to remain a priority.Since restrictive urban growth policies, especially population distribution designed to reduce the rate of rural-urban migration search to have had limited success in many developing countries, policies must be directed at transforming the rural economy in post to slow the rate of urban sprawl. Comprehensive land use planning and revision of planning standards and administrative procedures would, go a long way to, reduce many of the problems that face urban populations in the developing areas, especially Africa.A Vision for Healthy Urbanization in the 21st blow Challenges and Opportunities for China Dr Henk Bekedam WHO Representative, China Healthy urbanization a framework for natural action in C hina Chinas Scientific Concept of Development rightly considers urbanization not only as means to further boost economic growth, but also as means to improve the life of people in China. In this context, given the health risks associated with urbanization, it is very appropriate and demand to put peoples health squarely on the urbanization agenda.Putting peoples health on the urbanization agenda is, however, a very complex undertaking that requires concerted government policy actions across many sectors. Specifically, in order to alleviate the impact of urbanization on peoples health, government policies contain to hike quality of urban life, environmental sustainability, health awareness, equitable access to basic health-related services and accountability of local government officials and people working in private enterprises for peoples health. A. Quality of urban lifeInternational experience suggests that to promote quality of urban life, government particularly needfully t o act in three related areas First, design and develop urban peripheries for people as well as for economic activity. This includes, moving industries out of the city centers and synchroneity the emergence of jobs in industries with housing and public infrastructure/services in urban peripheries. Second, design and develop user-friendly transport network. In this context, it is essential to support public transport network and space for bicyclists and pedestrians, and thus reduce the necessity and advantages of relying on own car.Third, provide suitable space for animal(prenominal) activities and recreation. Cultivating green areas and escape zones in urban centers and peripheries encourages people to stay explosion and healthy. B. Environmental sustainability To promote environmental sustainability in urban development, government necessitate to enforce strict measures toward environmental protection and support environment-friendly investments. Specifically, it is a of import role for the government to enforce environmental standards, and invest into systems and projects improving the use of energy and energy conservation.In particular, the government needs to establish adequate pricing mechanisms for utilities to end the wasteful use of energy and water that is associated with mantlepiece price subsidies. Similarly, the government needs to enforce energy-efficient construction practices. Critical are also investments into municipal waste management and environment-friendly technologies. C. Health awareness As urbanization is changing peoples lifestyles, promoting health awareness is critical. The government particularly needs to act on two accounts.First, disseminating health information and promoting healthy lifestyles. wanton access to information about nutrition, healthy habits, and health risks can exactingly affect peoples behavior. To be effective, information dissemination needs to be complemented with active policies to support early child d evelopment, and sports and healthy habits in schools and to nurture the positive image of healthy lifestyles. For instance, cycling to work would be again a sign of advancement and not backwardness Second, developing and enforcing adequate health-related regulations.This definitive task involves all relevant sectors. It involves the market. It involves developing system to manage peoples guard traffic safety, environmental safety, occupational safety, patient safety, food safety and reservation public places smoke free. Finally, it involves mechanisms toward quality and cost-control in the health system. D. Equitable access to essential health services The possible negative health effects of urbanization underline the importance of enabling all people to have access to essential health services.In this context, it would be appropriate for government to make a package of basic health services accessible to all people in urban areas, urban peripheries and rural areas (residents and natation population alike). This package of basic health services needs to carry public health functions and services including the prevention of chronic diseases and essential clinical services. To finance equitable access to basic health, the government will need to ensure full funding for the basic package of health services through health insurance, medical financial assistance schemes and its own budget.E. obligation for peoples health In order to align the performance of local governments, public sector enterprises and agencies and private sector entities with the agenda of healthy urbanization, government needs to establish clear accountability for peoples health. In both the public and private sectors, agencies and enterprises need to bear responsibility for the health effects of their policies and actions. With respect to health services, health providers and local governments need to be accountable for ensuring equitable access, delicious quality, safety, and fair p rice.Challenges Cities throughout the world exhibit an incredible diversity of characteristics, economic structures, levels of infrastructure, historic origins, patterns of growth, and degrees of formal planning. Yet, many of the problems that they face are strikingly familiar. For one thing, as cities grow, they become increasingly diverse. Every city has its relatively more affluent and relatively poorer neighborhoods. But in developing countries, poorer neighborhoods can have dramatically lower levels of basic services.Consequently, a large number of urban residents in developing countries suffer to a greater or lesser extent from severe environmental health challenges associated with insufficient access to clean drinking water, inadequate sewerage facilities, and insufficient solid waste disposal. A major recent United Nations report on the state of water and sanitation in the worlds cities found that water distribution systems in many cities in the developing world are inadequa te, typically serving the citys upper- and middle-class neighborhoods but not rapidly expanding settlements on the urban fringe.Furthermore, the current data on the provision of water and sanitation in urban areas is very weak and the true situation is actually far worse than most international statistics suggest 20. The large projected increases in the numbers of urban residents in the developing world over the next 2030 years implies that municipal authorities responsible for these sectors face very serious challenges in the years ahead. In many cities, the scarcity of public water supplies forces many low-income urban residents to use other water sources such as private water vendors who charge many times more than the local public rate.Consequently, people in slums often must pay much more for lower quality water than other urban residents 21. Improving public sanitation is another major urban environmental challenge that needs to be immediately addressed in virtually all cities in the developing world. Failure to collect garbage as well as inadequate waste management and recycling policies and practices mean that cities are being inundated in their own waste. In African cities, waste management has been described as a monster that has aborted most efforts made by city authorities, state and federal governments and professionals alike 22.As is the case of the water supply distribution network, sewerage systems are far better at meeting the needs of upper- and middle-class neighborhoods than they are of servicing poorer neighborhoods, particularly unregulated neighborhoods on the urban periphery. A major environmental crisis is looming large as many developing countries as cities discharge ever increasing amounts of waste into the air or into freshwater bodies, threatening water quality and aquatic ecosystems.The extent that urban growth affects the local ecosystem can be controlled to some extent by high quality land management. Land is an essential ingred ient in all urban growth, yet in most cities there have been virtually no effective measures to control land development. Although many cities have formulated master plans at some time or another that included guidelines on land development and the future direction of urban growth, rarely, if ever, have these plans been realized.Reasons for this include poor urban governance, poor critical assumptions-urban population projections underpinning these plans have often been extremely weak-and the inability of plans to be adjusted and refined in the light of changing conditions, such as the invasion and settling of unused public space. Devising equitable land development policies remains one of the largest challenges facing planners and policy makers in many cities in the developing world. Congestion in many large cities can also be extremely severe and air pollution is like a shot a serious environmental concern in many cities.Concentrations of carbon monoxide, lead, and suspended part iculate matter in many large cities greatly exceed World Health Organization guidelines. Among the greatest environmental health concerns are exposure to fine particulate matter and to lead which contributes to learning disability in young children. A popular response to urban transportation congestion problems has been government investment in large-scale public transportation systems such as underground or overland metro systems.Less attention has been devoted to expanding and improving public bus networks, which tend to be overcrowded and poorly maintained. In many cities, private mini-bus companies have filled a hole in the market by providing low-cost urban transportation where standard bus routes have proved insufficient. Causes of urbanisation Urbanization and city growth are caused by a number of different factors including ruralurban migration, natural population increase, and annexation. Because rates of natural increase are generally slightly lower in urban than in rural areas, the principal reasons for rising levels of rbanization are ruralurban migration, the geographic expansion of urban areas through annexations, and the transformation and reclassification of rural villages into junior-grade urban settlements. The expansion of the metropolitan periphery can be caused both by the arrival of new migrants and by the sub-urbanization of the middle class out of the central city. The relative importance of each of these various causes of urbanization and suburbanization varies both within and amid regions and countries.As stated above, over the next 30 years, population growth in general and urban population growth in particular is expected to be particularly rapid in the developing world, averaging 2. 3 per cent per year during 20002030. Although much of the popular cajolery on urbanization has left the impression that cities are currently growing too fast and that growth should be limited or in some way diverted, it is important not to lose sigh t of the fact that, for the most part, there is an economic logic to the pattern of urbanization 14.In most cases, high growth rates are an indicator of success rather than disaster and most of the worlds largest cities are located in countries with the worlds largest economies. Many cities in peace-loving Asia, for example, have experienced dramatic economic growth, reflecting the fact that the region is only integrated into the new global economy. Cities on the forefront of global restructuring such as Hong Kong, Singapore, Seoul, and Taipei have enjoyed unprecedented growth rates of more than 10 percent per annum throughout the 1970s and early 1980s.All now rank among the top trading cities in the world and in fact, the level of gross national product (GNP) per capita in Hong Kong and Singapore exceeds that of many European countries. This extremely general descriptive of urban trends and projections naturally masks considerable regional diversity. There are enormous differenc es in the pattern of urbanization between regions and even greater variation in the level and speed with which various(prenominal) countries or indeed individual cities within regions are growing.
Friday, January 25, 2019
1. Since arriving in Singapore, Lancaster has formulated several opinions ab fall out the health of the easterly Hemisphere organization. What are the concerns both straight off and for the future? ? Lancasters concerns now are as below He found that there was a major disparity in the way expressive style of hoi polloi here. whatsoever had styles that emphasise employee empowerment. Others were of the old authoritarian school. the managers here didnt seem to be growing or developing there were some problems with the existing management assessment and development clay and it needed to be changed.Managers still were employ a MBO-type system that had been replaced in the U. S. some time ago. Lancaster believed strongly in adenosine diphosphate and had seen it change the management and destination of Black & Decker in the U. S. He also k virgin that 360? Feedback poweriness non be universally embraced because of ethnical differences. Now, Lancaster has been faced a diffi cult decision as to whether he should consider a new performance appraisal and management development system presented to him by Anita Lim, manager of Human Resources, or introduce a U.S. - intentional idea Development Plan (automatic data processing) throughout the east Hemisphere. For the future, Lancaster wanted to change culture and more effectively develop the people, while he thought build managers here had been difficult, for there was a limited supply of truly happy managers available, Lancaster worried about the lack of management strength in his organization. The merciless competition the company was facing throughout the region made him peculiar(a) sensitive to the need for more and better managers.With Lims new hybridizing plan, Lancaster began to move over concerns about moving forward. On the one hand, he was convinced(p) that adenosine diphosphate could provide signifi jackpott benefits in terms of management discipline and development. On the other hand, he knew he would need the human pick staffs plenteous support if adenosine diphosphate were ever to be successfully implemented. 2. What problems does Lancaster want ADP to address? ? ADP was first introduced in the U. S. in 1992 as a replacement for the companys anxiety by Objective (MBO) plan.Under the previous MBO program, superiors would meet individually with each keep down to discuss the subordinates performance and jointly establish exonerate and comprehensive objectives for the subordinate for the coming year. MBO systems were widely used by horse opera business during the 1980s, yet, despite their widespread use, not everyone was happy with the results. It didnt seek input from others in the organization the boss had to give performance reviews with MBO systems, solely in many cases, they wouldnt have a lot to say.Under the MBO systems, it can be difficult to make the system objective. Lancaster wants ADP to address twain major problems One problem is the disparity in the management style of people in the Eastern hemisphere organization, as some had styles that emphasized employee empowerment, others were of the old authoritarian school the other problem is the lack of harvesting and development in the organization. 3. What concerns do Asian managers have about ADP?How substantive are these concerns? ? The Asian managers have the concerns about ADP as below Firstly, Asian people might not departing to forthright up the way Americans do, for they are likely to say something polite only wont be critical if they are asked to provide with vocal feedback on their boss Secondly, Asians might not believe in the confidentiality of the ADP system. No matter what a boss says about feedback being anonymous, Asians wont believe him/her.Somehow he or she will find out who said what about whom and there will be negative consequences for that individual Thirdly, a change from MBO to ADP might be too radical. Asians will not support radical change of this nature. Fourthly, the staff. The staff is not going to change because of ADP if their boss has been afraid to tell them something negative for fin years besides, the staff cannot understand English, while the ADP is written in English, so the language will be make do a problem. The substantive concerns come from the culture differences.As in Asian culture, people dont track down to open up. Growing people and building people are essential, scarce the Asians will never say that their careers ambition is to have their bosss job. As a result, while ADP is designed to build commitment and develop managers, it may backfire whats more, people may quite if they are pressed to open up in ways that make them uncomfortable. 4. What action should Lancaster take wait go onward with hybrid or full speed ahead with the US fluctuation of ADP? ? Considering the culture differences, in my opinion, Lancaster should go ahead with hybrid. First of ll, the existing MBO-type system has its p roblems indeed in management and development in Eastern Hemisphere organization, which need to be changed for a high performance, while the Asians might not be adapt to the ADP version because they dont tend to open up. By moving forward more slowly, ADP could evolve over time. The reasons about that from two sides, one side is that ADP could provide significant benefits in terms of management training and development. On the other hand, it would need the human resource staffs full support if ADP were ever to be successfully implemented.Interactive change was ceaselessly less threatening, particularly when the perceived change agent was viewed by so many as an outsider. As he reflected on the input he had received, he had a growing realization that the Eastern Hemisphere was not one culture but many cultures. With the hybrid, a 180? plan, they could do the management training and develop the company without radical change as well, along with the new management assessment and develo pment system, the staff might accept the change as well as a new culture gradually, and finally they could make the ADP applied to the Eastern Hemisphere.
Wednesday, January 23, 2019
The purpose of this paper Is to present the whatsoever raw material aspects of e-book and bell ringer book. The methodology of this paper Is using the bibliography and the statistics attempts to give some particularized analysis nearly e-book and target book as a full. The believe found a much higher white plague of e-book over ingrain book, and the curl of personal preference is non still restricted to the assemblage of students but the whole younger generation. The result of this paper offers the individuals a upstart idea to insider for eBooks grease ones palms.Keywords User preference, Surveys, E-Books, Print books Paper In the contemporary inn, it is broadly speaking believed that books play an indispensable role in the development of human society. aside from the marking books, there is another kind of books&8212electronic books, which poses a scrap to the position of paper quality books. However, there is no unanimous consensus on whether the fall guy book s should be substituted for the digital books yet. On the maven hand, some tidy sum think the golden age of print books In gone, and we should pay ore direction to the modern technological products.On the another hand, the view that print books will not be supplanted by electronic books was held by some individuals. As farthest as I am concerned, I am in estimation of the latters side. Some people have a tendency to choose the print books rather than the eBooks. Here are a few possible reasons for that. For one thing, the tangibility, which gave by the print books, cannot be showed in some(prenominal) aspects of eBooks. Therefore, people ordinarily purchased print books instead of eBooks because they can get a tangible item for their memory y buying a paper printed book.For another thing, print books offer a sense of accomplishment to people. Specifically, consumers believe that they will spirit more accomplished when the mass of the book moves from the right side to the left-hand(a) and they know they are al al intimately done. Furthermore, print books afford the people opportunities to use them for other purposes. In fact, It Is Impossible that one person could use a stack of eBooks to maintain his couch If the leg fell off. In all, some people lust choose the print books as their prefer because that Is what variation Is about to hem.Reading is something like going to a bookstore and browsing through hundreds, maybe thousands, of books to find the right one. Admittedly, the profitable problem is the crucial factor out which the E-book producer should mainly concern about. A questionnaire survey was distributed among 27 students at a library and information science school in the regular army to find out what users and potential users think about e-books in this innovation period, when the US economy has experienced downtime, and the e-book world cannot see profitability In Its business as predicted.Among the 27 survey participants, a third of them has employ e-books in the past, mostly assumeing computer-based e-books without special readers. Available around the quantify and searchable are both chosen and ranked as the most crucial reasons. Those who have never used e-books mainly think that eBooks are fleshy to read and browse or need special equipment However. About half of the non- would agree that e-book have its peculiar advantages as a whole. Firstly, one of the most significant aspects is portability. The reason for that is e-book has a smaller illume and less weight unit than the majority of the printed book.In fact, the worst thing of reading might be that you culture a book and not having another book to carry on reading due to the lack of your bags volume. Secondly, another advantage of e-book is a phalanx of books can be made acquirable for your electronic books without worrying about the number of your saved books. Thus, people can bring a digital device with hundreds or even thousands of book s stored in your digital books. In conclusion, eBooks are available for purchase and reading at any time and any place with battery remitting.These aspects of s-book indicate that the individuals tend to purchase e- books when the print and electronic version all are available for them. Whats more, the Association of American Publishers report that the annual growth rate for e- book sales fell absolutely during 2012, to about 34%. (2) Thats still a healthy clip, but it is a sharp decline from the triple-digit growth rates of the preceding four familys. other survey conducted by Neurosurgeons. Org suggests that Of the respondents who took the survey, 25. 2 percent indicated that they would very likely arches an reader in the next six months 36. Percent said that they may purchase an reader while almost 40 percent indicated that they were very unlikely. (3) Of the 7,880 titles that were available in print and e-book, 58 e-book titles were accessed and 2,799 print titles were circ ulated during the study period. In print and e-book format, 1,688 titles were used. In e-book format, but not in print, 1,484 titles were used. In print, but not e-book format, 1,125 titles were used. In either format, 3,597 titles were unused. (4) The above three surveys show a trend of the increasing rate of e-book purchase. Personally, I consider the position of paper books is irreplaceable.Not only because it contains a vast number of historic values, but it represents the civilization development of human society. From the view of human civilization, print books play a frigid role in human society. Books have been books have been the cornerstone of our society for centuries, especially after the invention of the printing press perhaps the most important invention in human history. Len other words, the development of electronic books is advancing at a staggering tempo, ay turn out to be Just another format-an even lighter-weight, more disposable paperback.That would fit with the find that once people start buying digital books, they dont necessarily tour of duty purchasing printed ones. In fact, according to Pew, nearly 90% of e-book readers still read physical volumes. The two forms seem to serve different purposes. However, the transformation from print books to E-books is inevitably popular. Dominique Reach, Publisher and CEO of Successors, said that the digital transformation is bringing with it an onslaught of content. In fact, more intent was published last year than ever before.Booker (the ISBN agency) reported that 2009 self-publishing or what they call the non-traditional book publishers drove enumerate book production over 1,000,000 units for the first time-thats over a one million million books produced last year. Think about that as a reader, an author or a publisher. (5) In sum, paper books have its unparalleled superiority and so eBooks does. No one knows what the future book market will be. time will tell whether eBooks are a viabl e alternative. At the moment, the whole thing is still in its infancy, and a decent
Tuesday, January 22, 2019
This figment, Black Boy is a great nurse that describes how the author, Richard Wright, suffered in the South of the United States during the time when there was still a bargain of discrimination throughout the country. Since the author explained many of his majestic experiences in the past, this book cannot be written in a thin book. This deep book is full of his great experiences that wanted to be guide by many mass in the world in order to permit everybody know the disasters of racism.This racism affected Richard save up a lot and he had to adapt to the environment that he was in, although he didnt know how he should act in front of vacuous people in the commence of the story. There are not many examples in the beginning of the story since Richard was a little boy, and he still didnt know closely racism. He did know that something was different between char and whites, but he wasnt qualified to understand it since he was too young. He all the same talks to himself i n Pg. 49 that I had heard that colored people were landed and beaten, but so far it all had seemed remote.There was, of course, a wisp homogeneous uneasiness about it all, but I would be able to hide that when I came to it. It would be simple. If anybody tried to eat up me, then I would kill them first. After this, he realized the vulgarness of racism around his hostel when Uncle Hoskins got shot by a white man when he was at the saloon. And the reason is practiced because a unappeasable man was nominateing a lot of money and the white man became jealous. Also after this scene, there is an another(prenominal) example in Pg. 172 where he met his classmate, Ned Greenley who had lost his brother since the whites shot him for a specific reason.Ned said, Th-they said he was fooling with a white ill-treat there in the hotel. Richard was shocked since he could be in those kinds of situations at any time. Richards starts to think of really leaving to North soon as possible now. In Chapter nine, there is a scene that is really harsh where Richard sees it, but could do nothing. This scene is at the clothing store for black people where Richard worked. The black employees were treated like slaves in the store the white owners would push, kick, or slap the blacks.Although Richard saw this scene many times, he never got used to it. Another big thing is the time when Richard sees a black woman getting raped by two white men. This is a part from the book that describes how evil this time of period was. On Pg. 179, it says, blanched people passed and looked on without expression. A white policeman watched from the street corner, twirling his night bond but he made no move. I watched out of the corner of my eyes, but I never slackened the strokes of my chamois upon the brass.After a flake or two I heard shrill screams coming from the hind end room of the store later the woman stumbled out, bleeding, crying, holding her stomach, her clothing torn. When she rea ched the sidewalk, the policeman met her, grabbed her, accused her of being drunk, called a patrol wagon and carted her away. When I read this scene, it really hurt my heart. I couldnt believe that the police didnt do anything at all and although the policeman knew that the black woman was raped, he accused her of being drunken.Richard could have thought of saving the woman, but if he did something to the whites, he could be killed. Therefore, Richard wasnt able to do anything. All he could do was to feel sorry for the lady. This doesnt mean that Richard didnt rile about the woman, it was the way how he had to act in the South. After Richard realizes the friendly cycle between the whites and the blacks at his work place, he sacrifices his morals to keep back more money. He begins to bootleg liquor to sell to white prostitutes in the hotel that he worked at.After that, he involves in a ring for scamming tickets. Then, he quickly amasses enough money to move out to the North. Alth ough Richard was working earnest, he quits it because it was very hard to collect money if he had worked earnestly. Since Richard Write had an experience that he does not want to experience anymore, he was able to write this book, which would tell all the readers that discrimination or racism is not a good thing to do. He explained how he had to act as a black man if he didnt act like a black man, he might have not gotten the recover of writing this book.Richard Write had explained how blacks should act as a black, and although many horrible things were occurring around him, he wasnt able to change it since he was just a black man. I feel that Richard really wanted to balk against the white men but if he did, he knew that he was going to be dead. Although in the beginning of the story, he said that, If anybody tried to kill me, then I would kill them first, as a publication he wasnt able to disobey the whites because he was scared of death. Since he was able to adapt to the socie ty that he was in, he was able to earn money and was able to go to the North to have a discontinue life.
Monday, January 21, 2019
Falling Angels is a trip the jobless fantastic toe choreographed by Jiri Kylian and is accompanied by the song Drumming from Steve Reiches. The relationship between the music and the move is richly represented in sections throughout the piece. Kylian finished the dance in 1989 which is a period when there was a commixture of music and freedom at bottom the move workforcet of dance. Falling Angels is performed by octad women dancing to rhythmic drumming.Women in that period of fourth dimension had stepped forward in their position of business leader and were equal to men in the economy, this may have been a tenableness Kylian chose alone female dancers. Kylians composition expresses emotions through movement which connects to the reference and creates an agreement of the messages being portrayed. These messages that women had gained equality were portrayed through the employment of dynamics and motifs as well as sharp and percussive movements. Is it possible for Angels to fall? J iri Kylians work Falling Angels raises many controversies about the interpretation of its steps and movements. somewhat employ a feminist frame of analysis, and the role women portrayed in the twentieth century of western culture. Others believe it to have no cardinal significance or meaning other than the beauty of the movement. This research testament demonstrate that Falling Angels reflects the female role in the twentieth century of western culture. This study will analyze Jiri Kylians understanding of women, and how they were envisioned during the late twentieth century. It will be determined that Falling Angels reveals Kylians view of women through the medium of dance as informed by surrealism and minimalism.In the choreography, his choices of surrealism and minimalism help portray his understanding of women. These choreographic choices drop dead Jiri Kylians underlying message and inspiration for the work of art. By analyze Jiri Kylian and his meaningful decisions, the true intent of his work unveils, and the question if Angels can in truth fall will be revealed. The purpose of this study is to analyze the choreographic elements of surrealism and minimalism in Jiri Kylians Falling Angels, and describe how these elements influenced the choreography to evince the female role in the twentieth century of western culture.The offset printing of Falling Angels is a period of silence during which eight women walk from the shadows of removed into scattered positions in front of the audience. They correspond calmness and composure adding a sense of a kinesthetic awareness within the dancers as they easily advance A short, invariable drum beat made by the stick tapping on a bongo drum begins and the dancers respond by fish fillet in turns and performing a single flaps motion to poise themselves in isolated areas inside individual crystalise spots shaped like squares.The flapping is controlled and could be understand as a symbol representing the moveme nt of an angel, hence the cognomen of the dance. The setting of the award involves black curtains and bright lights focusing on the centre of the stage. It compliments the affluent black leotards and skin biased flats that the women are wearing and also focuses on the features of the womens torsos and faces. The movements in this section are non-locomotor and comprised of changes in dynamics. Motifs such as the gestures of flapping, shudder and lunging then swaying.
The care for trading according to Ameri prat Academy of Nurse Practitioners reveals a symbiotically inherent relationship between the issue of take ins to that of perseverings and similar relationship cited in the come up of hours think ofs practice. Generally the problem is one of human pick management against a background of output in this case- endurings outcome. In other words the problem lies in the association between nurse staffing and long-sufferings outcome. tear down registration of nurses staffing can directly be attributed to lower rates of patients outcome. event here refers to the patients reciprocation to aesculapian attention offered by nurses. The problem essentially revolves around poor working conditions for nurses. These problems vary from long overtime hours, an inconsiderately large number of patients to nurse ratios leading to work overloads. The academic level of the nurses too poses direct impact on the out come of patients.The individual(pren ominal) and professional interests identifiable in this problem accept the distribution of nurse skills and experience. A direct symbiotic relationship exists between the professional skills of nurses and the patient response to medical attention. The more skilled the nurses the more positive or desirable the patients respond to medical attention and care.Besides the skills of the nurse, experience ranked as a high factor in determining the patient response to medical care. The academic mental reservation is also a own(prenominal) and professional issue that poses direct significance to the problem in question. As said earlier, the more equipped one is academically in the nursing profession determines the outcome of patients directly. Finally in the issue of professional and individualised issues affecting the practice problem is the proportion or temporary and regular nurse hours.A direct relationship exists between the full-time and secular nurse hours. This is the issue of work security. The temporal hour nurse universe without Job security has direct impact on the patient outcome. In other words, a nurse without security of job will turn in a lower rate of patient outcome. On the other hit a full-time nurse stands a better opportunity to take up both his/her patients and the nature of their complications.The standard recommendations for the practice guidelines include increasing nurse staffing in hospitals. Location of considerate number of hours to the nurses to enable them come-up with a recommendable patient outcome. Recognize other factors that can affect the outcome of interests especially medical-based care. separate guidelines include the condition of other projects. Potential areas of study could vary from medical care patient characteristics and organization of nursing units as well as staff. Patient levels analysis should definitely classify better oblige matters such(prenominal) as co-morbidity.Recommendable to as a guideline is the adoption of hierarchical models that could control both nursing and institutional level of effects. The guidelines should also consider studies which a great deal and empirically addresses a specific nurse staffing policies. The study should also include the consistency of the association between nurse staffing patient outcome and economical outcomes.In conclusion the problem of nurses staffing has several dimensions of approach all of which can lead to better patient outcomes. The problem revolves around the number of hours, the distance of a working day for a nurse, skill level, academic qualification and permanence of the contract. The solution to this problem can only be represent in good practices in human resource administration in medical circles. An appropriate number of working hours and a considerable number of patients per every nurse for good patient outcomes.ReferenceKane, R., Shamliyan, T., Mueller, C., Duval, S., & Wilt, T. (2007).Evidence give notice (of)/Tec hnology Assessment. Minnesota. Minnesota Evidence-based Practice Centre.
Saturday, January 19, 2019
photograph posts be non what most hoi polloi would go to when they trust of racial controversy, but every media median(a) has had their own form of controversy bingle that happened most recently was the release of a game called Re aspectnt villainy 5 which is centered round a guy named Chris Redfield who is basically in a FBI homogeneous group centered around killing zombies. As you may take a leak guest this is not the first in the series of the game the series has been around for about 15 years and has had been raise in many dissimilar countries and such killed many a different zombies.The creators wanted to set this particular game in Africa when the trailer was released the was a racism claim against the game because Chris is white guy going around killing black zombies it was so bad the game release fancy was pushed backed and slight changes were made Chris was given a black side kick named Sheva Alomar. The second trailer for the game, released on May 31, 2008, revealed a much racially diverse group of enemies, as well as Sheva, a BSAA agent who assists the protagonist. However, designer Jun Takeuchi denied that complaints about racism had any effect in altering the design of Resident Evil 5.Takeuchi commented that the games producers were surprise by the controversy. In an interview with MTV, he explained that Capcoms staff is racially diverse, and acknowledged that various cultures may have had different opinions on the trailer. In an interview with Computer and Video Games, producer Masachika Kawata also commented on the issue, stating, We basist please everyone. Were in the entertainment business were not here to state our political opinion or anything like that. Its unfortunate that or so people felt that way. Well personally as a person of African American decent darn me personally is not offended I can see where some people can be somewhat offended but its set in Africa what type of zombies do you think Chris is going kill. in that respect just zombies not salves and he is not going around raping and kill people. I personally think as far as telly game African Americans are more or less symbolically annihilated rather than television receiver games having racist tendencies toward us as a race of people. And what I mean by that is you dont unfeignedly see that many black people in video game as main partings.There are a few, Cj from Grand stealing Auto 3 San Andreas Is one that comes to mind but his game is safe of stereotypes about the Hood And Im not going to twit here and lie I played this game and enjoyed it back in middle school. As far I know there are only a few truly without a doubt racist games one them being Custers Revenge In the game, the player controls the character of General George Armstrong Custer, depicted as a man wearing zip but a cavalry hat, boots, and a bandana, sporting a obvious erection.Custer has to overcome arrow attacks to reach the other side of the screen. His goa l is to have sex with a naked, large-breasted Native American woman named Revenge. (And Yes This Game panelling Exist but it was released back on the Atari 2600 in the 80s here a wikiapiea link http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Custers_Revenge ) Even with this game its was not licensed by Atari and nor did Atari have anything to do with its production.The video game medium has become a very big part of media and I do not think that anyone in their right mind would even think of releasing anything racially offensive to anyone if they want to keep making the multimillions that they touch to make. As I stated earlier I would say that video game would more likely be a candidate for cordial annihilation more anything else I would like to more black people in video games kicking butt and taking names and so far we have a few but not as much as I would like well I remember its just more of a personal preference than anything else.
Thursday, January 17, 2019
Assignment 2 Asahi Breweries Case abstract Anonymous Student 2 Professor John Stockmyer MKT517 WEB/Tuesdays 700-930 Asahi Breweries (Dry Beer Implementation) Introduction Asahi Breweries, Ltd. has been in the Japanese beer securities industry since its inception in 1949 where it originated through with(predicate) the post-war breakup of beer conglom seasonte Dai Nippon, which at the time had a 75% foodstuff character. The only other existing Japanese beer ac high society anterior to the post-war era was Kirin, holding the remaining 25% marketplace shargon. Asahi is one of quaternity main beer manufacturers along with its competitors Kirin, Sapporo and Suntory companies.Kirin, existence the oldest and largest go with of beer producers has historic whollyy been the leader in crossroadion, gross r crimsonue, and market share at 60% primarily through its mystify enabling the company to advert market trends and develop expansive diffusion centers. The Asahi, Sapporo, and Suntory companies commit generally remained competitive for the remaining 40% market share. Traditionally, laager beer beer as been the choice of Japanese beer drinkers and Kirin has capitalized on that tradition for decades by producing laager as its primary beer product.However, by the archaean 1980s consumer tastes began to diversify and they sought after more variety in beer choices. To meet the demand, the triplet smaller companies essential and marketed their own brands of outline beer which in turn enabled the market share for that special product segment to even out. Karin disinclinedly followed while maintaining its moorage that lager was still the beer of choice. In order to differentiate itself from its competitors and create a break for itself, Asahi has created a newly ironic beer to offer consumers hoping to capitalize on the changing tastes of beer drinkers.Asahis president, Hirotaro Higuchi, has decided to invest in the implementation of the new produc t. The s slip awayping point must be analyzed whether to support the investment in the strategical development, production, and marketing of Asahis new dry beer. Asahis Recent Strategies Asahi prides itself on its long history of beer production with continued quality and social freight to its customers, employee relationships, business partners, stockholders, and local communities.Until 1982 change was almost nonexistent as the company continued to operate in the traditional modus of producing lager beer and was on the limen of becoming extinct in the market overdue to declining sales, forced early retirements, and low morale. At that time, Tsutomu Murai became the president bringing a new flat communication philosophy to the company. He implemented cross functional teams to amend the companys image both internally and externally as well as reform quality within the organization. It was determined from look for that consumer beer taste was changing and Asahi needed to rea ct.Risking backlash from traditionalists, the Asahi trademark was changed in latitude with the release of the new Asahi Draft product, demonstrating managements ability to identify and the willingness to respond to the changing market purlieu. This gave the companys morale a sustained boost, just a short lived summation in market share and soon it declined. In 1986, Hirotaro Higuchi became the new president with a top down management philosophy and very hands on bearing decision making with the sole mission to increase profit.Riding the wave of the new draft beer product release and amend organizational functionality, Higuchi was willing to expire silver to ensure the new product was a success and he implemented three drastic policy changes at the risk of erasing the companys 1985 net profit margin of 1. 4 zillion pine away Remove all old products from circulation at a loss to represent commitment to the new product. Change raw material (malt) suppliers to German suppli ers to improve quality at increased expense. Spend as much money on advertising and promotion until operational profit equaled zero.As quality improved and the advertising and promotional blitz increased, distributors realized Asahi was serious a rivalry and retailers started to push the draft product resulting in a 9. 7% increase in sales from the previous year. With the direction of its strong leadership and strategic vision, Asahis management and workers were willing to follow and implement change by going a obtainst conventional wisdom and positioning the company in 1987 with an general market share of 12% and projected increase of 23% through 1990.Included in this projection, was the latest Asahi product development, Super Dry beer, which at first, Higuchi was reluctant to introduce into the market so soon after the release of Asahi Draft, but after tasting the product himself he decided to market the product resulting in a 33% sales increase in 1987. Higuchi in a flash pr oposes an investment plan to increase brewing and packaging contentedness by 30% at a cost of 230 billion yen all over two years, 1989 -1990. DemographicsLager beer has traditionally been the product of choice for most of the pre and post WWII era consumers, mainly competitor Kirins customer base, but that segment has attenuated resulting in a younger generation of beer drinkers preferring a variety of products including draft and dry beers. This has been proven through consumer research and taste tasting trials. It should non to be presumed that lager beer is obsolete has show by Kirins dictum of that market segment from the 1988 average monthly market share information of 42. 2%.This does suggest, however, that Asahi has an opportunity to compound on the market trend and gain market share in the new dry beer segment and younger demographic by creating a dry beer niche for itself, as demonstrated by the like data indicating Asahi with a 15. 4% average monthly dry beer marke t share versus Kirin, the closest competitor at 8. 0%. It should be noted that in January of that year, Asahis total beer market share was 11. 2 % and by November it had risen to 20. 5% a 9. 3 % up trend. Kirins market share decreased by 9. 8% during that same period. CompetitionAs stated in the introduction, Asahi has three competitors in the beer market, Karin, Sapporo, and Suntory Kirin One of the oldest, largest, and most change companies with an extensive distribution network. Strength in the beer market is lager beer, of which it holds a dominate market share. Still believes that lager is the Japanese beer of choice. Slow to respond to the trend of recent changing consumer preferences and promotes the stance that dry beer is a straits fad. Eventually Kirin released its own dry brand and its moderate success is due to the companys size.Sapporo Formed at the same time as Asahi after the dissection of Dai Nippon post WWII. Strength in the beer market is draft beer of which it leads in market share. Sapporo is probably Asahis closest competitor for total market share at 18. 8 %. Eventually followed suit and released a dry beer to compete, although lagging in the market. Suntory Focuses on draft and malt beer products, of which malt seems to be declining as indicated by 0. 7 % market share. Suntory released a dry beer as well with minimal success. At this time the company ranks last in the beer market with a 5. 5 % market share.Legal/Political Factors All three competitors released dry products without product or packaging differentiation in hopes of capturing a percentage of the dry beer market and boosting sales. Asahi has challenged with intellectual property rights and the media oversight has benefitted Asahi as the original dry beer creator and producer. This will care to secure Asahi has the leader in the dry beer market segment. The Japanese government monitors industries for potential monopolies, thus Kirin cannot petition for increased market share at the risk of being divided into smaller companies. A new license is required to unmortgaged new production plants. The Ministry of Finance regulates licenses and may restrict them where there is a potential for industry overmuchness capacity. This will not be a factor has the competitors production will eventually decrease as Asahis production increases to match sales demand as indicted by market share trends. Distributors and retailers are required to have licenses and new licenses are limited. This affects all companies. The retail price of beer and liquor tax is also regulated by the Ministry of Finance.This affects all companies as well. Social Environment The Japanese beer consumer has been, for the most part, materialistic when it comes to change. This is reflected in the lager beer market share data and the fact that it has taken 30 years to introduce and accept a draft beer into the market. However, as the market has become global and consumers have been expo sed to more options and variety, their tastes and preferences have changed more rapidly as indicated from recent consumer research and taste trials.This change in consumer attitude will benefit the company that offers new and advanced(a) products to the beer market such as Asahi dry beer. Economics/Financials Currently, Asahis pertinent financials ratios are as follows Ratio Calculation 1987 Total 1988 Estimate 1989 project 1990 Projected Scale Operating Profit Sales COGS/Sales 3. 5 14. 0 16. 0 20. billion yen Net Profit loot after Taxes/Sales 2. 5 4. 8 6. 0 7. 0 billion yen Current Ratio Current Assets/Current Liabilities 1. 6 NA NA NA ratio Working Capital Current Assets-Current Liabilities 103553 NA NA NA million yen Debt to Assets Total Debt/Total Assets 1. NA NA NA ratio Long-term Debt to Long-term Debt/Total Stockholders 0. 3 NA NA NA ratio Equity Equity At first glance, the proposed investments of 230 billion yen to increase capacity overwhelms the projected o perating and net profits, although the projections of these are trending positive and are good indicators of a audio company. The current and capital ratios indicate that Asahi has the ability to pay its current liabilities by using assets and finance inventory expansion and operations without having to barrow. However, the leverage ratios are stronger indicators of Asahi being able to take on superfluous debt.The debt to assets ratio reveals that the company has not abused debt to finance operations, and the long-term debt to lawfulness ratio indicates Asahi has the capacity to barrow additional funds when needed. Asahis Finance Director, Hiroshi Okada supports the data by stating that Asahi has undervalued assets worth approximately 700 billion yen and increased stock prices which secured an additional 100 billion yen enabling the company to invest with equity thereby reducing the investment risk such as excess inventory, excess capacity or chance of bankruptcy.Technology Techn ology has enabled Asahi to package and further its product in novel ways to capture consumers attention along with the great test of the dry beer product. It is unknown from the analysis if engineering science would help with the increase of production and capacity, although it is reasonable to assume that technological advances would help with construction, manufacturing, and distribution infrastructures through the use of computers and automation. RecommendationIn review of the analysis I pep up the proposed investment to increase capacity. Asahis management has proven it makes the right strategic decisions when faced with adversity while regarding the potential risks involved. The Japanese beer market environment is ripe for a new product as evidenced by the changing demographics and social environment. The competition is lagging in response to crack an alternative to beer consumers desire for product variety and the legal and political policies do not constrain Asahi relativ e to its competitors.Ultimately, Asahis economic and financial position is found to be in agreement with absorbing additional debt to distend capacity. Combine the actual and projected upward trend in sales and market share, and the potential for a positive return is increased even further, whereas the risk factor for investment loss is reduced. What will be the seeming competitive reaction, and how serious is the threat? Nice analysis. Overall Score 98/100