Monday, February 25, 2019
Spartan Society – Year 12 Ancient History Assignment
exposit 1 (a)He was believed to be the creator of the knockout ball club and how it functi integrityd. Most of the starks open idea him as a God-like figure and worshipped him. There is no plastered(prenominal) source or a piece of evidence ab tabu(predicate) Lycurgus and archaeological records contradicted his existence often. Even seriouss had no idea of what Lycurgus looked like but there were his portraits and statues as what people imagined how a wise lawgiver would look like. (b)TheHyakinthia fete This was a feast named after Hyakinthos, a youth who was l everyplace of the god Apollo and died when Apollo accidentally hit him with a discus.The flower of the red hyacinth was believed to feign sprung from his blood. In his grief, Apollo ordained an annual festival. This festival was held at the ancient enclose ofAmyclae(about five kilometres from Sparta). This site was the location of a huge statue of Apollo, the tomb of Hyakinthos and an clean argona for fes tival dances. The festival as well ask place over three years in the (summer) month of July. A and thenaeus, writing in the 2ndcentury A. D. , has addicted an account of this festival, which basically revolves around mourning for Hyakinthos, and praise of Apollo The festival had deuce demonstrates 1.The world-class stage involved rites of sorrow and mourning in follow of Hyakinthos. There was a ban on the wearing of wreaths and on buoyant songs. Offerings were placed at the dead youths tomb. The eating of cultivated cabbage and cakes was forbidden there was a limited funeral meal, then a day of ritual grief. 2. The second stage involved rejoicing in honor of Apollo, the wearing of wreaths, the singing of joyful songs, sacrifice to Apollo, a festive meal, a procession to Amyclae, choral song and dance. The historian Hooker has interpreted the festival as a festival for the dead on cardinal hand, have with a thanksgiving for life on the separate.TheGymnopaediae festival Th is was The Festival of the strip Boys. The festival was held in the Spartanagora(market place). It commemorated the battle of Thyrea fought against Argos c. 550 B. C. The festival have choral performances the unsexting up of images of Apollo and Artemis boxing amongst boys and men. Although much has been written about the violent aspect of the festival, it has been interpreted as a rite of passage on the way to manhood, an initiation that paint a pictured membership or be coherenting to the companionship.The Gymnipaediae were celebrated in July, the hot trial part of the year. The festival consisted of a series of athletic competitions and melodious aftermaths among boys and men. bound and running in tough conditions proved the say-so of the Spartan citizens to the onlookers. In its early context it was part of the whole warrior code to initiate the immature soldier to a life of physical excellence. It was not confined to Sparta. This festival was a thank- moroseering to A pollo for soldiers success. c)Religion in Sparta, like in many civilizations, had a commitment to support the ideals of a militaristic high party. The Spartan ideal of an elite sort out multitude terra firma influenced the approach to faith and the ways in which religion would be molded to suite state doctrine, therefore highlighting the immensity of religion in upholding the values of Spartan society such as endurance, loyalty, obedience, conformity, and skill. Religion was similarly use to create social coherence, important in promoting conformity and in controlling the society under the ideals of the military state.At an unmarried level religion provided a way of ensuring fertility both military man and natural as well as averting disaster and ensuring supremacy in war. Religion was important for the State and this could excessively be seen in the wartime practices of the Spartan Army. According to Powell, Spartans believed in military sooth proverb, following an a rmy to war was a herd of sacrificial animals ready to appease the Gods. Consultative sacrifices were held earlier embar queer on a military campaign, before a battle and when stepping into the door of the enemy.As written by Herodotus, Cleomenes in 494 on an invasion campaign to Argo was move troops home because he had seen bad omens at the river Erasinus. Spartans to a fault chaffered Oracles at Delphi for predictions, famously at the battle of Thermopylae Leonidas was told to give up or fight to the death against Persian troops. The Spartan corporate trust on vaticination is reflective of how religion was utilize for military organisation and was important in supporting the state with battle strategy and on issues of joining battles. The reliance on religion creates a perceive of reassurance for warriors if they had een given a costly battle prediction and as well a justification for retreat with a bad omen, as seen through Cleomenes. The mythology was interwoven with eve ry aspect of Grecian life. Each urban center devoted itself to a particular god or group of gods, for whom the citizens often built synagogues of worship. They regularly honoured the gods in festivals, which high officials supervised. At festivals and other official gatherings, poets recited or sang great legends and stories. Many Greeks knowing about the gods through the words of poets.Spartan mythology was different than any other city-state in the Ancient Greece. Their gods were the same as others but Spartan gods were gear with armors and weapons. This is an pillow slip of how militarised Sparta was. Even their lawgiver Lycurgus is believed to be a myth by historians. Many Spartans worshipped as a god and in stage to create a perfect city-state, he could be constantly recreated to exempt why things were as they were. Although the Greeks had no official church organization, they universally honoured certain holy places.Delphi, for example, was a holy site dedicated to Apol lo. A temple built at Delphi contained anoracle,or prophet, whom brave travellers questioned about the future. A group of priests represented from each one of the holy sites. These priests, who also might be community officials, interpreted the words of the gods but did not possess any circumscribed knowledge or antecedent. In addition to prayers, the Greeks often offered sacrifices to the gods, unremarkably of a domestic animal such as a goat. (d) The religious data link to the military can be first seen in the Greek Gods the Spartiates emphasised and worshipped.The principal Spartan Gods were Apollo, Artemis, Athena, Discouri and Zeus. Apollo, Artemis and Athena more explicitly demonstrate the militaristic nature of Sparta with the three Gods associated with victory, wisdom, and skill in battle. Even Gods that were not usually known for battle were given militaristic traits, like the statue of the Armed Aphrodite in Thornax. The worship of Apollo and Artemis and their high status reflects the military value of Spartan society in training the youth for future defence.Such devotion to Apollo and Artemis can be seen in the Sanctuary of Apollo at Amyclae where coins in the likeness of Apollo were found and at the Temple of Artemis Orthia where thousands of votive offerings were found. Rites of passage within Spartan society were also carried out at the Artemis Orthia and can be likened to a vigorous military test of endurance with religious overtones. Young boys endured harsh whippings whilst trying grabbing stringed cheeses off the shrine. Those who could withstand the punishment were given honour and moved onto another stage in their military training.Religion in this case was used to sort out those with better warrior potential. Another function of religion in Spartan society was to train the hoplites. Hoplites were taught religiously devotional dances and songs, but the worship taught in the barracks also had military purpose. The song and dance helpe d with organise war movement, as the musical devotions not only praised the Gods but taught ideas of rhythm that was used in coordinating Phalanx in battle and the ability to move in a manner that was in harmony with the other warriors.Other examples of religion being a form of endurance training and test can be seen in the Spartan festivals. In the Carneia, the participants had to live in barracks as though on campaign and were made to run and chase a figure to train, test and celebrate athletic ability. The festival was associated with military success and the state used this festival as a way of glorifying past times victories, therefore promoting the successes of the military state.According to Hooker The Principle aim of the Gymnipaediae another festival was the habituation of the Spartan manhood to trying activity. The festival consisted of athletic competitions, musical all the samets and dancing as displays of strength and endurance. This gave the state the opportunity to train hoplites, and separate the strong from the weak The subroutine of religion was to support the military organisation and was vital to a state, which precious an elite defence force and celebrated skill in battle.As shown to a higher place religion was used a form of preparation, training assurance and mastermind in military situations. It was believed in Sparta that a queen by faithfulness of his betoken descent should perform all the public sacrifices on the citys behalf Xenophon. The fagots acted as a priest towards the Gods. Aristotle, Dealings with the Gods are designate to the kings Ritual responsibility was associated with political office staff giving kings special control in religious interpretation or jurisdiction.The kings through public sacrifices first received the divine messages of Gods and poufs could also consult the oracles as they wished. As divination was passed through the kings to the rest of society, the Kings had the power to make the people to curtain call to the Gods will. spiritual authority equates to political power an example of such power was when King Cleomenes refused to go into battle but got off trial by saying that the omens were bad so he could not fight. If a Spartan King had evidenceable religious excuse he could be forgiven for losing battles and refusing battles.Such religious data link was important in gaining, loyalty and obedience in the political arena, the divine status of the Kings was sign of military elitism. Spartan society according to Xenophon depended on the king and was loyal to the King, even believing that if an untitled person meshed the royal seat military disaster and famine would ensue. Spartan society valued conformity, coherence and believed in strong social controls, which religion then reinforced.Spartas social organisation was formed to encourage a sense of community and kinship, which in turn intruded on private religious practice. The Spartiate was inevitable to share sacri ficial meat with his mess-companions. Religion was interpreted to support the dodging of shared messes. Other ideals or Social cohesion can be seen in the Spartan religious festivals. In this festival people would communally mourn the dead and have a thanksgiving to life, it was to religiously as a community reaffirm the need for a close society.The festival of Carneia also emphasised a communal time of celebration, which honoured heroism and past successes in battles. During this time the Spartans were not allowed to travel to wars or battles, the Carneia being the reason they were late to fight in the Marathon 490BC and the lesser numbers at Thermopylae. Spartans had special departments, which were in charge of dealing with the oracles from Delphi and keeping records of signs from God. The power to consult the Gods however was exclusively among the authoritative forces of the state just as power itself was.Even Ephors had divination powers and all political classes of Sparta had religious duties to perform. It is evident that religion in Sparta functioned as political organisation religion was used to demonstrate prestige, power and authority which were vital to society that honoured divinity and, religion also assisted in creating a way for the governing forces to manipulate the wider society with claims of celestially ordained political decisions. The political connection to religion was a way of promoting the Spartan ideal of an elite warrior society.Part 2 (a) 1- Leonidas (Famous for the Battle of Thermopylae and the Persian Wars. ) 2- Menelaus (Famous for the Trojan Wars and the husband of the Helen of Sparta, later became known as the Helen of Troy. ) (b) According to Plutarch, the council originated when Lycurgus attempted to constrict royal power. More than likely, Gerousia originated as a result of a fighting between the kings and nobles during the first Messenian War. There were 28 members and the two kings in the Gerousia.Membership was qualif ied to Spartans over 60 years of age that were no longer reasonable for military service. Thus it was a consistency of elders who held their office for life. The Assembly select members by acclamation and although any Spartiate was eligible in practice members belike belonged to highly respected noble families. Aristotle mentions the exceed families, Plutarch says that they have to be the scoop up and most deserving. and the selection was by acclamation (shouting and clapping).The Gerousia was a Probletic body and this meant that they watchful and deliberated on bills to be presented to the Assembly for voting and if the vote was not canonical by the Gerousia, it could simply ignore it by adjourning the bill would not be passed. The Gerousia, Kings and Ephors acted as a court of justice and they tried cases of murder and duplicity and imposed penalties ranging from death to banishment and fines even the prosecution of a king would come before the Gerousia and the 5 Ephors .All these factors ensued that men of conservative opinion had the best chance of getting into the council, staying there and replacing themselves with people of the same outlook. It would take a brave and confident king to pursue a indemnity that did not command the support of the majority of the Gerousia, knowing that in the event of failure, he was likely to be prosecuted upon his return. T. J Buckley stated in his accommodate Aspects of Greek History to exemplify the power of the Gerousia. (c) The Ephorate was the fourth major ecesis in the Spartan constitution.Five Ephors were elective each year from the whole citizen body and by the fifth century, they were constitutionally the most powerful public officials. They were in charge of the day-today condescension and were also main executive body of state, implementing the decisions of the Assembly, at which they presided. They were also in charge of private lawsuits, which they judged sitting separately. They were combined with the Gerousia in the trial of a king. They supervised the other public officials, having the power to suspend, jail and even bring capital charges against them.One of their most important responsibilities was the supervising of the agoge, the long and tough system of state education that was essential for the high standards of the Spartan army. In the field of foreign affairs, they would receive foreign ambassadors to ascertain their business before presenting them to the Assembly. In time of war, it was their responsibility to organise the call-up of the army, deciding the precise size of the army that was needed for the coming campaign and may even have possessed the power to give orders to commanders (except for the king) in the battlefield.When king set out an expedition with the army, he was accompanied by two of the Ephors who acted as overseers. Aristotle saw the Ephors as the most powerful of the four key institutions of state but also the most corrupt. However, Ephor s had disadvantages as well. For example, Ephors did not have a continuous power in the state as they were only elected for a year and could not be re-elected ever again. This caused differences of opinion over policy between successive boards of Ephors, but also between indivi three-fold members of the same board.There was often disagreement, even personal animosity, between the kings and it is likely that each king would have his supporters among the Ephors. However, Ephors, for all their constitutional powers, only held office for one year and then returned to political obscurity, whereas the prestige of the king was long-standing. Some of their other functions were * They had the right to declare war on Helots. * They could fine people in the spot for being lazy. * They were the only magistrates who could conduct a civil trial. * They had the positive power over all the magistrates. They controlled Krypteia and state finances. (d) Spartan government contained elements of monarc hy, oligarchy and country and this was described as a mixed constitution. Spartan government was consisted of 2 kings and this dual kingship maybe was to prevent one king becoming too powerful. The Spartan Kings had ranges of powers and responsibilities. Some of them were they were the supreme commanders of the army, were the chief priests and decided on the marriages of divest heiresses. Spartan kings were the supreme commanders in the battlefield.However, the policy stated that only one king was suppose to lead the army to prevent any differences of opinion about the strategies and tactics during the battle while the other remained at home. This dual kingship ensured that each could keep an eye on the other. The leading king was usually accompanied by 2 Ephors and they kept a close supervision of the kings leadership and the Kings were blamed if the campaign had failed and severely punished. The king that leads the army had the absolute power in the battlefield and picked bodygu ards were to accompany the king.Aside from the kings responsibilities for the military, they were also the chiefs of priests. It was believed that Spartan kings were the priests of Zeus and they were to offer solemn sacrifices to Zeus requiring a gilt omen to proceed. Those sacrifices were performed on the frontier and the fire from these sacrifices carried with them throughout the entire campaign. Kings were also expected of to be responsible for the oracles of Delphi. It was believed in Sparta that a king by virtue of his divine descent should perform all the public sacrifices on the citys behalf Xenophon.The Kings acted as a priest towards the Gods. Aristotle, Dealings with the Gods are assigned to the kings Ritual responsibility was associated with political power giving kings special authority in religious interpretation or jurisdiction. The kings through public sacrifices first received the divine messages of Gods and Kings could also consult the oracles as they wished. As di vination was passed through the kings to the rest of society, the Kings had the power to make the people to bow to the Gods will. Source B is an excavation of a portrait in Acropolis landing field of Sparta in 1925.It is believed that the statue was a portrait of Leonidas. By the look of the statue, it is a emblematic Spartan man with a helmet, however it does not necessarily indicate that it is Leonidas or even a king. Though in the Spartan religion, Gods were geared up with weapons and armors. This is evident of even if it was a statue of Leonidas, it illustrates what sort of people kings were to the Spartan people. Spartans assumed the kings were descended from Heracles and they are the best kinds of semi-humans, this might be the reason why the king was wearing a helmet, if it really was a statue of Leonidas.