Wednesday, March 6, 2019

Body – Traffic Jam

Chapter 1 Introduction 1. 1Origin of the advertise This reveal has been prep ared fol upseting the command of our course teacher Pro. Ali Akkas as a part of our course duty Communication under the EMBA program of Dhaka University. 1. 2 Objective of the report 1. Broad objective To discuss transaction jam, its causes and remedies 2. Specific objective -To discuss the effects of barter jam on environs and aff adequate life, -To be introduced with the way of relief from trade jam. To find the way of upgrading the barter systems . 3 Scope and Limitations of the report This report could have even much(prenominal) wealth and information. But, cod to limited time, few information could be collected. to a greater extent(prenominal) budgeting on this report could have given it a aristocratic look. In spite of these limitations, it has been tried to enrich this report by proper and true(p) information. It has been tried to be rational with the real figure of business jam. It is believed that this report leave alone help the follower to go for further analysis. Chapter 02 Methodology 2. world Parameters A parameter is a numerical summary of a race because populations have so m any members, these can never be cognize except if a census is taken. 2. 2 Sampling Design In the theory of finite population sampling a sampling creation specifies for every possible sample its probability of being drawn. Mathematically a sampling design is denoted by the function P(S) which gives the probability of drawing a sample. 2. 3 Vari able-bodieds C everyplaceed Here we have included -urban relations problems -suburban traffic problems high way traffic problems 2. 4 Methods of Data Collection at that place are four main methods of data collection. Census. A census is a study that obtains data from every member of a population. In or so studies, a census is not practical, because of the cost and/or time required. exemplar survey. A sample survey is a study tha t obtains data from a subset of a population, in instal to estimate population attributes. Experiment. An experiment is a controlled study in which the researcher attempts to understand cause-and-effect relationships.The study is controlled in the moxie that the researcher controls (1) how subjects are assigned to groups and (2) which treatments each group receives. Observational study. resembling experiments, observational studies attempt to understand cause-and-effect relationships. However, unlike experiments, the researcher is not able to control (1) how subjects are assigned to groups and/or (2) which treatments each group receives. 2. 5 Data Analysis Plan The appropriate methods of data analysis are determined by data types and variables of interest, the actual distribution of the variables, and the number of cases.Different analyses of the said(prenominal) data set may reflect or represent distinguishable aspects of the underlying data structure. Once a plan has been e stablished, it could contain any combination of the following types of data analysis strategies Exploratory This type of data analysis often occurs when a program is new, and it is unclear what to expect from the data. descriptive The most common type of data analysis, this approach exit iterate your findings and describe the sample. Inferential Inferential statistics allow us to draw conclusions more or less the larger population from which the sample is drawn.These powerful techniques may be able demonstrate if a change has occurred as a result of your program. PDAs Statistics sectionalisation specializes in many a(prenominal) sophisticated data analysis techniques. Chapter 3 concern wardrobe, Its Causes, Effects and Remedies 3. 1 Causes of affair Jam During experiment, it has been found that human race error is a major cause of most frustrating kinds of traffic jams. ( Annexes I) In generally the traffic jams are causes by following reasons- -Dishonesty of traffic pol ices -Insufficient roads and highways. Poor communication system. -Too many vehicles -Low price evoke ( CNG) and forthcoming motor cars. -Traffic jams are usually caused because there must be an accident. -Most often, traffic jam are caused by those who drive too slow ceaselessly end up compacting the faster drivers behind them -In rush hours when too many people start for destination. -Free parking here and there causes hindrance on traffic way -Some drivers tries to drive faster than the flow of traffic. -Some times drivers h ageing the line on the highway and causes a traffic jam. . 2 Traffic Jam Affects Society and Environment Traffic jam affects the society in approximately of the ways below creates mental stress in the motorists paves way for wastage of fuel and wear & tear of vehicle parts which ultimately waste the silver of the motorists becomes a cause for rash driving and road accidents involving loss of lives makes the motorists to inspire lot of vehicular sm oke emissions in a short consummation of time causing many diseases wasting time of motorists and ridersTraffic jam affects the environment in some of the ways below efficiency of fuel tradition by idle running of vehicle engines in low f number is very low leading to wastage of fuel which ultimately results in over exploitation of fossil fuel reserves vehicles at low facilitate emit lot amount of carbon monoxide, unburnt fuel particles, suspended particulate matter matters and other pollutants into atmosphere causing air pollution more code when vehicles start to move slowly, noise pollution is created by blowing horns by the motorists. 3. 3 Remedies to Traffic JamIncreased regulation would not work in practice. Regulation either requires more cops, which are an expensive kind of work force, or automatize systems, which are sketchy from a legal point of view. Technological solutions arent the way to go, either. They are predicated on the assumption that all (or enough) dr ivers would adopt this technology, which will be expensive and error-prone, and possibly encourage risky behavior. Traffic jams are a symptom of more vehicles than the planned carrying capacity of the roads. In order to prevent traffic jams -one method is to reduce the number of vehicles. Imposing disincentives (taxation, congestion fees) is one way, but offering sensible alternatives (mass transit, a functional passenger rail system, telecommuting) is smarter. -no hand held cell phones while driving. -controlling Speed of traffic more efficiently during rush hours (points to one idea, the classic slow down and withstand a constant speed method). Chapter 4 Conclusion and Recommendation 4. 1 Conclusion The present problem of traffic jam has not created by one day. For big unawareness and long time plan and sound number of traffic cause this.As Bangladesh is a developing country, it should be more aware of time and money. Not only this, as Bangladesh is a low land country, so it should be aware of green erect gas. Traffic jam is killing time, wasting money, causing more green house gas. If we cant reduce traffic jam significantly we will be great looser. Our development may slow down due to traffic jam. 4. 2 Recommendation -We will have to go for long time plan to improve our roods and high way communication system. -Withdraw of old and slow vehicles. -Trained driver -Maintain LAN during driving -Use of dividerAnnexes-I Bottlenecks (traffic demand exceeds roadway capacity) 50% of total traffic jam Traffic incidents 25% of total traffic jam Work zones 15% of total traffic jam sad weather 10% of total traffic jam Poor planetary house timing 5% of total traffic jam Fig - On an average major causes of traffic jam References 1.Text books Giltow, C. & Oppenhein, R. (1995). Management Tools and methods for improvement. Boston Irwin-Mcgraw-Hill. 2. Websites -HYPERLINK http//statisticssolutions. blogspot. com/2008/09/what-is-included-in-data-analysis-plan. hypertext mark-up language -http//wiki. answers. com/Q/What_causes_traffic_jams -http//wiki. answers. com/Q/What_are_some_ways_a_traffic_jam_affects_the_society_and_environment http//freakonomics. blogs. nytimes. com/2008/03/10/what-causes-traffic-jams-you/ http//www. infoplease. com/ipa/A0931283. htmlaxzz0wBBDMA5L

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